Solid State Guitar Amp Forum | DIY Guitar Amplifiers

Solid State Amplifiers => Amplifier Discussion => Topic started by: Lauren on August 25, 2014, 07:10:38 PM

Title: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on August 25, 2014, 07:10:38 PM
Hi There,

My husband is an avid Fender guy and plays around with building his own guitars.  I would love to surprise him by building a guitar amp for him out of something cool, like a beer can, thermos, or lunch box.  I've seen some ideas online, and spent an hour at Radio Shack trying to piece some parts  together today based on an idea I saw on Instructables.com, but I don't think I've got a great plan.  I don't know how to read schematics, but I am willing to do that research to figure it out if necessary.  I would love a relatively simple but fully functional and very cool plan for creating an amp for him.  I'm thinking something like the Smokey Amp, but in another casing.  Hope you can help!!

Thanks!!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: joecool85 on August 25, 2014, 08:43:57 PM
This is the place, we've done some cool things here before.  I suggest taking a look at the Little Gem, it's real easy to build and if you follow the perfboard you don't even need to know how to read the schematic.  Here is the link: http://www.runoffgroove.com/littlegem.html

Do you know how to solder?  That you will need to know.  Unless you built it on a breadboard...that could be solderless for the most part.

As to ideas for what to put it in, the sky is the limit.  You could use a PVC pipe end cap, jewelry box...tupperware?  Most anything really.  Check out these threads on interesting amps:

http://www.ssguitar.com/index.php?topic=1237.0
http://www.ssguitar.com/index.php?topic=2049.0
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on August 26, 2014, 01:10:38 AM
Hi Lauren, welcome.


What a delightful idea!

While it's a little more complicated I would suggest that the Ruby might be a better proposition;

http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby.html (http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby.html)

This can be run from either a 12 volt battery pack and/or a 9-12 volt DC "wall wart"/plug-pack mains supply.


Joe's right, small amps like this have been built into all manner of things that happened to be to hand.  I go wandering around supermarkets, $2 shops, hardware stores, and thrift/op-shops  looking at things like sundry containers and even baking dishes thinking "amp chassis" and it's surprising what turns up when you look at stuff that way.

For example I've seen a few busker amps built into small plastic jerry cans like...

http://www.usplastic.com/catalog/item.aspx?itemid=101755&catid=605 (http://www.usplastic.com/catalog/item.aspx?itemid=101755&catid=605)

... with a hole cut in the side to accommodate a 6 or 8-inch speaker (bigger the better) with the circuit board stuck down inside using a few dabs of silicone sealant.

e.g.
(http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-6R0l0qfHqCo/Tw7wVSHmbRI/AAAAAAAAAVE/GoxAyeYWkw8/s640/jerry-can-speakers.jpg)


Soldering is not a hard skill to acquire.  You need rosin-cored electrical solder, a soldering iron of about 30 watts, and a damp cloth pad to wipe the tip before making each joint.

The classic method of learning how to solder is to make up a drink-coaster sized matrix of 10x10 bits of fine tinned copper wire, then soldering up all the joints.  Most people are doing satisfactory joints by the last one. (if not, do a second one and you'll be expert   :dbtu:)

- wipe the iron tip clean
- put a small dab of fresh solder on the tip (this is not to make the joint but to couple heat from the iron tip to the wires better)
- hold the iron tip against the wires to be joined for a couple of seconds to heat the joint up
- run a little fresh solder onto the joint.

Don't carry solder to the joint on the iron tip (all the flux quickly burns away).

Heat up the joint and let it melt the solder, not the iron tip.

A good joint should still show the general outlines of the wires, too much solder and it gets blobby (but you can melt off excess with the iron), not enough heat and the solder goes pasty rather than fluid.

You are sure to find some soldering instructional videos on YouTube.

Will be interested to follow how you get on.   :dbtu:
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on August 26, 2014, 11:45:15 AM
Thank you both so much for the replies!! I plan to make it a project over the long weekend and will post my results (and probably questions!). 

So excited to get started!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on August 27, 2014, 12:03:46 PM
Build Thread!  Build Thread!

Progress; thinking, drawings, and pix.  Sound samples.
 :dbtu:
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 01, 2014, 03:28:36 PM
Question(s):

I purchased  a "mini breadboard and jumper wire pack" from RadioShack.  Does this replace my need for a circuit board? I am confused because in some places the directions seem to state it can be used in place of, and in others, it says that you should use the breadboard to test out circuits, which to me implies that I should then transfer it to a circuit board. (?) 

The plans I am using call for a LM386N-3 Audio Amplifier Chip.  I bought one at RadioShack that does not specify if it is -3, -4, -1, etc.  Can I tell from the description on the back? Does it matter?

The plans I found also call for mini blade auto fuses, 3 amps and 5 amps. It says they are optional.  It also says, "Too much current will not only burn up your amplifier, but it can kill you."  Not wanting to get killed by making this gift, do you think these fuses are a necessity?  Is there a real danger of me getting hurt by this 9 volt battery??

FYI: I am using directions from a book called "How to Make 9 Volt Portable
Guitar Amplifiers," by Mike Melvin and Tim Swike.  It is helpful because it explains the technology/science and has very detailed pics.  I looked at the links you guys shared with me, but I am too new at this to understand all of it without detailed explanation (especially the schematics).  Then I stumbled upon the book on Amazon, and for $11, I figured it was worth the investment. :)

Here is their list of parts:

8 ohm speaker, 3", 1.0 W
2K ohm volume potentiometer, audio taper
b1k ohm distortion control potentiometer, linear taper
2 prong output jack
(fuses?)
LED bulb
220uF electrolytic capacitor, 35 v, axial leads
2k resistor
breadboard
9v battery terminal
jumper wires
LM386N-3 amplifier chip
9v battery
mini toggle switches (on.on DPDT)
Output jack (mono, 1/4")
amplifier knobs
grill cover
glue
soldering tools

I am heading out to RadioShack soon to exchange some of the things I bought when I thought I would follow a different plan.  I am hoping to find the things I am missing there!  Once I hear back from you guys, I will start braving the process of actually starting this project.

Thanks again!!


Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: g1 on September 02, 2014, 12:06:51 PM
Breadboard can be used for prototyping or building.  As this is a one off project you can use the breadboard as the finished product.  If you decide you want to go into production, it would be easier to use printed circuit boards.

The 386 suffix denotes how much voltage the IC can withstand, any version is good for at least 9V, so you don't need to worry about it.

Fuses are optional.  You can't hurt yourself with a 9V battery (unless you really wanted to, and connect wires to it that you pierce your skin with).
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 02, 2014, 12:14:52 PM
I'm personally not mad on breadboards, but they are no way permanent, so what you need are "prototyping printed circuit boards".  These are small general purpose PCB which you solder to and are a lot more solid (+/- your soldering) when you are finished.

This is half of a small prototyping PCB called dab-board or donut board (cf Vero or strip-board);
(http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby-trace.jpg)
...and this is exactly what I think you should be building.


The difference between the IC types are that as the numbers go up they are able to work at higher powers and higher supply voltages.  I don't think that's going to matter on a 9V battery supply coz the limits are 15V and 18V.  If you use a good quality round hole 8-pin socket you can easily change the IC if needs be.

You can download the datasheet for the chip you are using here;
http://www.digchip.com/datasheets/parts/datasheet/024/LM386N-4-pdf.php (http://www.digchip.com/datasheets/parts/datasheet/024/LM386N-4-pdf.php)


Quote from: Lauren
"Too much current will not only burn up your amplifier, but it can kill you."

Which realistically has somewhere about the same odds as alien abduction  :duh ; forget the fuse.


I suggested the Ruby;

http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby.html (http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby.html)

...for a couple of reasons; not least there are very good diagrammes and pix of the actual construction, and if you have never built anything before, this is the way to go.  The second reason is that I think this amp will have much better performance than the other suggested design.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: g1 on September 02, 2014, 01:33:50 PM
  Sorry, I seem to have messed up with my interpretation of "breadboard".  I was thinking you meant perfboard (vero or strip board) like the picture Roly posted.
  The radio shack breadboard you have is what I call "protoboard" and is not suitable for a permanent installation (and way more expensive).
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 02, 2014, 02:38:28 PM
Obligatory caution: building electronic stuff is highly addictive

It comes in colours but it is not safe for children or small furry animals.  Blood will be spilled.  Fingers will be burned.  You will get shocked (eventually, but not this time).  You will find yourself mumbling as you struggle with soldering something "Next time I'll ... "  and you know your hooked; tomorrow a stomp box, next a big valve amp...   :dbtu:


(ahem)

meanwhile...

You actually don't even need the copper. (there is even more basic board that has the 0.1" holes but no copper called "matrix board")

This is built entirely using the leads of the components to make the connections, no added wires except for external connections.  Just stuff the component through and bend the leads to where they need to go, solder, trim (good fine side cutters needed!), next component.

I have a few old suture clamps/hemostats that I use for lead forming, but fine needle-nose pliers will do.

Only about 20-25 solder joints in all.

Start by placing the IC socket (in the right place, the right way around) and tack solder at two diagonal corner pins.  Build relative to that.

Watch the polarity of the FET, the IC, and the two electrolytic caps (and the battery connection!).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=xhQ7d3BK3KQ (https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=xhQ7d3BK3KQ)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 06, 2014, 11:49:33 AM
Thanks for the video clip...I'll probably need her inspiration as everything involved in this project is new to me, but at this point, I can't even get started enough to fail. Though I suppose that is a failure in itself. LOL. 

I will take your advice and try the Ruby, but I think that one must have some knowledge of how to read those schematics in order to figure out what components to purchase, b/c I didn't see a list and I have very little idea of what I need.  I recognize some of the parts, but not all. 

Would you be so kind as to give me a list of exactly what I need to purchase in order to do this?  I hate sounding so ignorant, but that's exactly what I am at this point!  And I am frustrated by my inability to get going, as I thought my husband would be jammin' on a homemade amp-in-a-thermos or something by now! :/

I appreciate your help, and l look forward to sharing my eventual success with you guys! Not much of a quitter, so I know I'll figure this out at some point.  :)

Thanks!
Lauren
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: g1 on September 06, 2014, 12:05:48 PM
  Maybe this will help.  They don't want the pdf posted elsewhere but here is a link to it:
http://www.generalguitargadgets.com/pdf/ggg_ruby.pdf

and some more
http://www.rustybrooks.com/electronics/mouser/kits?kit=rubyamp

http://rubyamp.com/build.html

http://www.instructables.com/community/Ruby-amp-9v-DIY-guitar-amp/
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 06, 2014, 12:17:15 PM
THANK YOU!  The first link seems to be just what I need!!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: J M Fahey on September 06, 2014, 12:20:45 PM
Here´s a simple version, with reasonably easy to follow instructions, a drawing (besides the schematics)  of how parts should be mounted and connected to each other and an important "extra" : a ready to solder PCB which I suggest you buy.

One less thing to worry about.

http://www.generalguitargadgets.com/effects-projects/amps/a386-amp/

(http://www.generalguitargadgets.com/wp-content/uploads/1m_a386_pcb.jpg)

It still is your decision where to mount it, from (emptied :) ) beer can, to cigar box to Tupperware  to ild VCR tape box.

The first one is the most difficult, I remember mine, full of doubts, reading schematics 1000 times to make certain, solder either not sticking or melting all plastic parts within a mile, ugh !!!!

But when it finally works ....  <3)   <3)   <3)
But
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 06, 2014, 03:04:01 PM
Just got back from RadioShack...they had *most* of the things on the list, but not all.  I am going to post pics of what I bought, in the hopes you can confirm I bought the right things! 

I bought a big bag (500!) of Carbon-Film Resistors, all 1/4 Watt, because they didn't have the ones I needed in individual packages.  This includes the 10ohm, 3.9K, 1.5M, and 1K called for in the plans.

I found a 10K Linear Pot--but it was called a mini-volume control.  Is that right??  Could not find a 1K Pot and the 1K Trimmer was not a switch at all--it was a little blue thing that seemed very wrong based on the schematics, so I didn't buy it. 

Could not find the transistor.   :(

I already had the LN386.

Purchased the .047uF 50WVDC, 100uF 35WVDC, 220uF 35WVDC, and just realized I didn't buy the .1uF.  >:(  How do I tell the voltage rating? Is that indicated by the "35WVDC"? The plans say minimum of 16 Volts.

Bought the input and output jacks, a 5mm red LED light, batteries, snap connectors, 22 Gauge Stranded wire (they didn't have 24...is this ok??), desoldering braid, 60/40 rosin-core solder, and a small general purpose printed circuit board (the thing I am most uncertain is right). 

So far, I have spent close to $80 on this, I think!  Is that right? I realize I will be able to use many of the elements I purchased again in the future, so I guess it's not so bad. LOL.

SO, to recap: I am still missing the 10K Pot, the MPF102 Transistor, and the .1uF Capacitor.  Hopefully I can get started with what I have??

Getting excited to get this going!



Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 07, 2014, 01:57:22 PM
Quote from: Lauren
Just got back from RadioShack

Why do I suspect that they'll remember you?   ;)


Quote from: Lauren
I bought a big bag (500!) of Carbon-Film Resistors

See?  I warned you it was addictive.  Now you are going to have to build him a whole line of stomp boxes to use up this excess.


Quote from: Lauren
10K Linear Pot

After their value and taper (log or lin) pots are generally selected on their mechanical properties, how and where you intend to mount them.  In this case you need a VCU-style with a mounting nut and shaft for a knob.  Sometimes these come with excess shaft and you have to cut them to the required length.  The 1k pot should look identical except for its value marking.  Pity they didn't have in stock.

(http://grangeramp.com/shop/images/R-V38-A.GIF)

(http://www.amprepairparts.com/dshaft16.jpg)

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Potentiometer.jpg)


Quote from: Lauren
Could not find the transistor.   :(


I think you need to find another store, maybe open a mail order account with Mouser or someone.

The MPF102 is as common as dirt, but just about any N-channel J-FET should substitute.


Quote from: Lauren
Purchased the .047uF 50WVDC, 100uF 35WVDC, 220uF 35WVDC, and just realized I didn't buy the .1uF.  >:(  How do I tell the voltage rating?

The smaller values are electrolytics which are polarised - like the IC and the FET you have to get them in the right way around, the smaller values are just normal caps.  "35WVDC" - maximum Working Volts DC.  Generally we buy the voltage range that is next up from where we are working, but 35V should be fine.  The lower values are typically 100V working so they are no problem.


Quote from: Lauren
red LED light

A note of caution.  A LED is a diode, not just a light globe, and it must have a suitable resistor in series with it to limit the current.


Quote from: Lauren
22 Gauge Stranded wire (they didn't have 24...is this ok??)

In some projects such as a 100 watt amplifier where there can be a fair bit of current flowing the wire gauge used can be important.  For this project we only need it to connect X with Y in a reasonably robust manner - thick enough to last well, thin enough to work easily.  Your local computer shop will typically have a few dead computer power supplies kicking about waiting to be thrown out which are generally free of the asking.  A few of these will provide you with enough coloured hookup wire to last years (unless you go really manic on building).


Quote from: Lauren
a small general purpose printed circuit board (the thing I am most uncertain is right). 

This;
(http://rsk.imageg.net/graphics/product_images/pRS1C-2266799w345.jpg)

...or something similar.  $2.50 for the pair.  I know you have some startup costs such as a soldering iron, but $80 seems like a lot to me.

All those resistors, how do you tell them apart?  Well look on line for one of the many resistor colour code charts and download a couple.  Initially at least you are going to need this to find your required value resistors in your mega-pack.

You will notice that resistor values are not arbitrary but follow a (rather odd) sequence; 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.2, 2.7, 3.3, 4.7, 5.6, 6.8, 8.2, 10.  After a while you get to recognise the colour patterns instantly on sight.  The three colours red/orange/yellow (2, 3, 4) can sometimes be confused when they are multipliers; when in doubt measure it with your trusty $10 digital multimeter (remembering to hold only one end, you have resistance too).


Quote from: Lauren
I am still missing the 10K Pot, the MPF102 Transistor, and the .1uF Capacitor.  Hopefully I can get started with what I have??

It would be better to have all the board-mounting bits, FET and cap, before you start because retrofitting parts can be a bit of a wangle, but you can certainly start marking up your board with a fine felt tip pen as you nut out where each component should go.  Generally we start with the IC or its socket and build up around that.

Have you watched some YouTube soldering How To's?  You also need some a little practice on something harmless before you start.

I must confess to being a tad excited myself - love a good build thread.   :dbtu:
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 07, 2014, 08:39:02 PM
As a 'beginner" I am following this with interest.  <3)

Just a note, I checked Mouser and DigiKey for the MPF102 and both show it as obsolete and no stock.

As Roly said, just about any N channel JFET will substitute. The PF5102 is in stock at Mouser and DigiKey.

Others that would probably work are J-111, J-112, 2N3819 etc.

If you really want to stick with the MPF102, Jameco has it.  :)

http://www.jameco.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/Product_10001_10001_26403_-1 (http://www.jameco.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/Product_10001_10001_26403_-1)

Edit;
Amazon has it too in a lot of 6.

http://www.amazon.com/MPF102-FET-Transistor-6-pieces/dp/B007V4FS5U/ref=cm_cr_pr_product_top (http://www.amazon.com/MPF102-FET-Transistor-6-pieces/dp/B007V4FS5U/ref=cm_cr_pr_product_top)

Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 08, 2014, 05:28:56 AM
As I recall 2N3819 is the "proper" type number for the (Motorola in-house) MPF102, but those J-series should work just as well.  {But what does it mean to say they are the "same" when they have a 10:1 spread in their specs?}

Quote from: galaxiex
Amazon has it too in a lot of 6.

For her next project?  May as well since she's got a bag of 500 resistors.  :lmao:

But serriously, if you are going to buy in quantity you can get some serious discounts from 25-up.  Every component I buy I buy 2, 5, or 10, depending, cos as Jeri Ellsworth (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xhQ7d3BK3KQ) says, you can't have too many parts (or multimeters, or oscilloscopes or...).


Parts packs are a good way to get started with a stock of components, and some things such as transistors in 100 packs like;
http://www.jaycar.com.au/productView.asp?ID=ZT2170
 (http://www.jaycar.com.au/productView.asp?ID=ZT2170)

NPN and PNP PN100 and PN200 "universal" transistors, 30c ea or 21c in 50+.  100 transistors (for only $20) will keep you building pedals and preamps for an awfully long time.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: g1 on September 08, 2014, 02:16:52 PM
  Just a few more comments to add to what others have mentioned.
Lower gauge number wire is thicker, so it will always be able to handle the current, but may be stiffer and more difficult to work with, in this case I think 22ga will work fine instead of 24.
  A 1K trimmer is not a switch, it is a trim pot.  Generally, trimpots are miniature versions of pots that are adjustable with a screwdriver rather than a knob.
  Pretty much any .1uF cap  will be rated at least for 16V, so any should work.
Big bags of assorted parts are not always a good value, some times there may be 3 useful ones and a hundred you will never use.  In this case, I don't know how many different values of resistors they have in that assortment.  If it's a lot, you will have a hard time sorting through all those color codes to find the ones you want.

And I agree with Roly, $80 seems quite high.  Could you do a breakdown of the more expensive items?  If some are ridiculous, perhaps you could take them back and get them elsewhere.  I had thought this would be quite a cheap project, if a lot of it is general supplies not specific to this unit, then that is more understandable.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 08, 2014, 05:44:03 PM
So this is what I have purchased so far:

Bag of Resistors: $14.49 (photo attached)
10K Linear Pot: $3.99
LM386: $1.99
.047uF Capacitor: $2.49
100uF Capacitor: $1.49
 220uF Capacitor: $1.49
Mono Quarter Inch Jack (Out): $4.49
Stereo Quarter Inch Jack (Input): $4.49
LED light: $1.99
Battery Snaps: $2.99
9 Volt Battery: $4.99 (but it was a BOGO, so more like $2.50 :) )
PC Board: $2.49
Wire: $8.49 (3 25' rolls)
DeSolder Braid: $4.49
Rosin-Core Solder: $5.99


I still need to buy a few things--1 pot, 1 transistor, and 1 capacitor.  So far, I have spent $66 on the things I will use for this project, but also bought a couple of doubles (PC Board, batteries), which added to that $66, take me closer to $80 with the tax.  I'll be able to use the soldering parts later on and my tons of resistors!  We already have a soldering iron and a multimeter, so that's good! 

Hoping to find the remaining parts soon so I can get started!  Keep the advice coming!



Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 08, 2014, 05:45:12 PM
Also need to buy a speaker, which I keep forgetting to factor in!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 08, 2014, 05:58:11 PM
And this is the Circuit Board I purchased.  Will it work?
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 09, 2014, 12:24:47 AM
That circuit board will work fine.
A bit big maybe, but that gives you lots of room to have an "airy" layout.
It's easier to place parts and work with a big board than too small a one.

Once you have everything...
Test place the parts without solder first, following the diagram to see how things connect.
You may end up re-arranging thing so they connect easier.
I sometimes "stuff" the board several times without solder.
After looking at a parts layout for awhile I will often change it to make certain connections easier.

I think? this project has a suggested board layout at http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby.html (http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby.html)
ahh, yes it does. Their board is a little different in that it only has individual solder pads.
But the "packaging" on that board is pretty tight. (that's not a bad thing.)
On your board you could spread things out a bit if you wanted.

Hope you find your parts soon.
I'm excited to see what you build.   8)

Many here stand ready to help if you have trouble.
Please don't be afraid to ask.  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 09, 2014, 11:21:55 AM
The resistor pack looks like a really good assortment of values, and they are in belt-lettes so once you work out a colour code for a value you can write it on the cardboard end.  I sort mine into a plastic fishing tackle storage box divided in decade ranges.

Circuit board, also just fine ('tho you may have to change the layout a bit to fit in with those 3-hole bars.  I'll check.

galaxiex - what can I add?
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 09, 2014, 12:12:10 PM
Oh, one of these are indispensable.....  :)

 Use it to hold solder joints, the circuit board, many things.... available everywhere...

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/DKHelpingHand.jpg/220px-DKHelpingHand.jpg)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helping_hand_(tool) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helping_hand_(tool))

Many other uses besides soldering.

Get one with or without the magnifying glass.
I have both...  :loco
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 09, 2014, 12:24:53 PM
{well it was this or Solitaire   :loco }

Quote from: Lauren
Bag of Resistors: $14.49  (500off)
10K Linear Pot: $3.99
LM386: $1.99
.047uF Capacitor: $2.49
100uF Capacitor: $1.49
 220uF Capacitor: $1.49
Mono Quarter Inch Jack (Out): $4.49
Stereo Quarter Inch Jack (Input): $4.49
LED light: $1.99
Battery Snaps: $2.99
9 Volt Battery: $4.99 (but it was a BOGO, so more like $2.50 :) )
PC Board: $2.49
Wire: $8.49 (3 25' rolls)
DeSolder Braid: $4.49
Rosin-Core Solder: $5.99

Jaycar in AU$

 1 / 4 Watt Carbon Film Resistors - 300 Pieces
This pack includes five of virtually each value from 1 Ohm to 10 Meg. Sixty different values. All resistors are bandoleered for easy sorting. Values supplied are 1, 1.5, 2.2, 3.3, 4.7, 5.6, 10, 12, 15, 22, 27, 33, 39, 47, 56, 68, 82, 100, 120, 180, 220, 270, 330, 470, 560, 680, 820, 1k, 1k2, 1k5, 1k8…
Qty
1+ $6.95 * 500/300 = $11.58  < corrected for quantity


10K 16mm Potentiometer Linear Single Gang (B)
Qty
1+ $1.95

(OR)

10K 24mm Potentiometer Linear Single Gang (B)
Qty
1+ $2.25


 LM386N-1 Low Voltage 1W Amplifier Linear IC
Qty
1+ $2.25


 0.047uF 50V Blue Chip Monolithic Capacitor
Qty
1+ $0.28    (even at 630 volt they are still only $0.85)


 Capacitor Electrolytic 100uF 16V 105C L / ESR
Qty
1+ $0.36


 220uF 16V RB Electrolytic Capacitor - 105oC
Qty
1+ $0.35


 6.5mm Mono Chassis Socket - Unswitched
Qty
1+ $1.95
 6.5mm Stereo ENCLOSED INSULATED SWITCHED Socket
Qty
1+ $3.45
 6.5mm Stereo ENCLOSED SWITCHED DPDT Socket
Qty
1+ $2.95


 Chrome Bezel with 5mm Blue LED
Qty
1+ $4.95


 9V Battery snap - Standard
Qty
1+ $0.40
 Safety 9V Battery Clip - Highest Quality
We call these safety clips because the side of the clip totally covers the battery terminals and sits flush on the top of the battery. Supplied with high quality AWG24 connection cable.
Qty
1+ $0.90

(Battery - too many variables)

 Universal Pre-Punched Experimenters Board - Small
…stock 3 sizes of Phenolic board that has a matrix of punched holes on a 0.1" (2.5mm) pitch . Each donut is separated from its neighbours by about a 0.5mm gap. This effectively isolates each pad but also makes it easy to bridge solder across to make interconnections. Each board also has `fingers' on opposite…
Qty
1+ $4.50


Hook-Up Wire Pack - 2 metres
2 metres of 8 different colours of 13 x 0.12mm hook- up wire.16 metres in all.    
     QTY    
     1+    $4.95  * 22.86/16 = $7.07  < corrected for length


 3mm Economy Desolder Braid
A special treted piece of braid for removing solder from a PCB. Place the braid over the solder and apply soldering to efficiently remove solder. 3mm wide 5" long! more...
Qty
1+ $3.25


Rosin-Core Solder - (depends on quantity, also Pb-Directive complicates)


Radio Shack
14.49+3.99+1.99+2.49+1.49+1.49+4.49+4.49+4.99+2.99+2.49+8.49+4.49=58.37 (US$)

Jaycar
11.58+1.95+2.25+2.25+0.28+0.36+0.35+2.95+4.95+0.40+4.50+7.07+3.25=42.14 (AU$)

At this particular instant 1 Australian Dollar equals 0.92 US Dollar

AU$42.14 * 0.92 = US$38.77

My experience of Tandy (which was RS in Australia before they went bust) is along these lines, close but more expensive, and in the case of small individual components like caps, way over the top, but overall typical.  I wouldn't be surprised if you did a similar comparison with Mouser, DigiKey and other US suppliers you would find a similar difference.  You haven't been too badly gouged, and you seem to have obtained most of what you need, but Tandy/RS here had a pretty awful reputation of selling overpriced crap ('tho I believe the quality in RS stores in the US is better).


If you buy a sewing machine you better come up with some clothes, and if you have a pack of 500 resistors you better be planning a fuzz box or two to go with his new amp.   :lmao:
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: g1 on September 09, 2014, 02:14:37 PM
 Ok, that resistor assortment looks much better than I expected.  I was worried there might just be 500 individual resistors thrown in a bag for you to sort out.  Looks like they are separated by value, with more of the most common values.  Price is reasonable, the only thing to keep in mind is they are 1/4 watt, which is fine for any battery operated device, but may not be useable in some other powered circuits you may build in the future.

Most of those prices you paid are fairly reasonable, except for the very generic individual electronic components, like the caps, led, and battery snaps.
It's fine for a one off project, but if you do more building check an actual electronic supplier such as Mouser, Newark, Digi-key, etc.
  As Roly pointed out, simple items like some of those caps are inflated 10 to 100 times for price.

Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 10, 2014, 03:46:12 AM
{please scrute for errors guyz}
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 10, 2014, 06:05:37 AM
You. Are. Awesome.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 10, 2014, 08:47:20 AM
We just want to see you (successfully) build it.  :)
But...
Roly already warned you...
Once you drink the Kool-Aid there is no going back.  ;)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 10, 2014, 09:31:19 AM
You. Are. Awesome.

{I know  8)}

After you, there are others; you are the pioneer blazing the trail.


a) It isn't verified, we don't yet know it's error (or misleading) free - you are the gen guin test stunt hampster.
(http://i793.photobucket.com/albums/yy213/katiekitty98/hamster.jpg)


b) What's the exact Radio Shack part number on that board (on the label hopefully "CatNo.")?


c) Is there anything about the drawing that you find confusing, need clarified?


d) As long as the various bits stay connected as indicated you have latitude to move bits around if you have trouble making them fit (the caps mainly, and their lead spacings), just so long as each of the pathways between points stay the same.


e) with this layout you shouldn't have to wait for missing parts 'coz I've tried to make them easy to retro-fit.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 11, 2014, 08:34:19 AM
Well, looky here...  :)

I just happen to have the same board in my junk that Lauren has...

Radio Shack Cat-No 276-150.
A bit hard to see in the picture but the # is on the copper/solder side of the board.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 11, 2014, 11:29:20 AM
Okay, after a few quick PM's this is now a dual build thread, both Lauren and galaxiex are going to build identical Ruby amps using the same RS Cat-No 276-150 boards - I feelz a truly Awesomeness thread coming on here now.   :dbtu:



L>No clue what an 8-pin DIL is

Dual In-Line package, the sort your IC is in, two parallel rows of legs.

An 8-pin DIP socket matches your little LM386, even has a notch on the pin one end.  It's  nice touch, but it is not essential

BTW - important point - it should say on that layout that it is the TOP SIDE or component-side view, not the bottom of copper-side view.  Another assumed convention, 'tho you would have worked it out when you looked at the top of the IC.  It has a notch at one end to show the pin-1 end, but they almost always have a little dot or molding mark next to the actual pin-1.

(http://www.chiplook.com/uploadfile/ic-doc/497-8-DIP.jpg)

{I have a funny feeling that this was an accident.  In the early days some DIPs had a molding mark next to pin one when the goop had been injected, and not all chips had it, but it was informal, a blemish.  Then some manufacturers started putting deliberate dimples next to pin one and it seems to have become a de facto standard ('tho I know of no literature/datasheet on it).  The official mark has always been the D-shaped checkout in the end, but I've used the dimple since whenever.}
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 11, 2014, 01:35:55 PM
Very awesome! and VERY nice of you Lauren! Thank You! :dbtu:

I'm not sure how far along you are with getting the rest of your parts, so I'll start...

Some housekeeping...  ;)

First off, I'm not going to be following Roly's drawing from post #27 as it doesn't match our circuit boards exactly. (sorry Roly  :))

Edit; It does match, I was looking at it "wrong"  :-[

I will use the Ruby schematic from > http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby.html (http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby.html) to help wire the board.

(http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby.png)

I printed off the entire page to have a handy reference beside me while I work.

Just a note; in some of the early pics you will see Roly's drawing.
That was before I decided to use the schematic from runoffgroove.

Again apologies,
I am going to break the steps up into many individual posts as I hope it will make more sense that way.
There will be lots of pictures and I don't want to clutter one post with a bunch of steps making it hard to follow.

I work a day job and may not be able to make consecutive posts of the steps, as I'm sure there will be others posting and questions asked in between steps.
And I hope Lauren will be posting pics of her progress too!

Ok, sooo... here we go...  :) (assuming you have all parts at hand...)

001
The board and schematic.

002
The socket and the LM386 chip, mine is marked LM386N-1
Which makes it the low voltage version, but still able to handle up to 12V according to the Data sheet.
Not necessary and not shown, I also printed off the Data sheet for the chip. (a good reference to have anyway)

003
Planning where I will mount the parts, no solder yet.
This looks like a good place for the chip socket.
Notice pin 1 is at the bottom left corner and the socket straddles the 2 center copper strips.
The 2 center strips will be my power and ground connections.

The socket pin numbers as oriented to the picture...

             8765

             1234

004
Following the schematic, test placing more parts. no solder.
The schematic does not call the parts by numbers such as R1, R2, etc
so I will refer to the parts by their values and what each part is, eg. *the .100 cap*, or *the 3.9K resistor*.
There are not so many parts, so hopefully this won't be confusing.

I marked the 2 center copper strips with + and - signs on the top component side of the board.
Placed the .100 cap one lead wire at pin 7 and the other lead wire at the 3 hole solder pad just to the left of pin 8.
Placed the 10 ohm resistor leads to pin 5 and to 3 hole solder pad 4 places to the right of the socket.
Placed the 47nF (or .047uF same thing) cap to the RH end of the 10 ohm resistor and to - or "ground" center strip.
Placed the 220uF cap WRONG PLACE will fix in the next pic/post.

Whew!
Notice how the copper side of the board matches the white (painted ?) ink markings on the top of the board.
Handy for when a few parts need to be connected together.

Ok, that's all for now. Gotta run out and get a 1K pot that I am missing.

Edit; took the day off work today to play and have fun...  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 11, 2014, 05:15:27 PM
So now I am really feeling the pressure to get started!  I know you called yourself a beginner, galaxiex, but you definitely know more than I do just based on what you are already doing and the lingo you use. :)  I am a bit intimidated by this whole thing, but am feeling motivated by your motivation.  I am going to try to put something together now and will post as I go.  I am going to stick with Roly's plans...more of a "Ruby for Dummies," which I am and need in this instance. (And it has my name on it :dbtu:)  I ordered my 1K Pot on Amazon today and should have it by Saturday (gotta love Prime!).  Still need a couple of other pieces, but I appreciate the ability to build around them just to get my feet wet. 

Wish me luck!

Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 11, 2014, 05:22:04 PM
Is it necessary for me to mark the board "+/-" the way galaxiex did?  If so, please explain how I should be using the positive and negative sides differently.  How will I know what part of the item goes on which side? Thanks!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 11, 2014, 05:48:23 PM
Ok.  So I think this would help me a bit to understand the basics.  On the circuit board I have, there are 23 holes going across (held horizontally) and they are "grouped" in twos (vertically) by a gold band.  Then there are 3 individual circles (vertically), followed by 3 circles grouped by a gold band, and a line of circles going horizontally across the board, all grouped by the gold band.  It's repeated on the other side, in the opposite layout.  Roly, your schematics for me has a row of 20 across and goes a-j (10 down).  If I were to label my circuit board, it would 23 across and have 13 holes down, a-m.  How does this affect the build and following your plan, if at all?  What's the difference between the individual circles and the ones grouped by the gold bands? 

Told ya...beeeeggggginnnnnnerrrrrr.  LOL!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 11, 2014, 06:15:53 PM
I fear I will drive you all crazy soon.  I did not see anywhere in the Ruby plans that I need a socket for the LM386.  Is this something I need to purchase?
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: DrGonz78 on September 11, 2014, 06:20:13 PM
No you don't NEED to have a socket to fit the chip and solder it to the board. Many kits and people out there use them to easily swap the part out. Actually many people new to soldering fear touching the iron directly onto the legs of the IC. I think you will get along just fine without one.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 11, 2014, 06:23:24 PM
Thanks, DrGonz78!  Etiquette question:  Should I wait to post a new question until someone addresses the old one?
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: DrGonz78 on September 11, 2014, 06:28:47 PM
Thanks, DrGonz78!  Etiquette question:  Should I wait to post a new question until someone addresses the old one?

Ask all of them that you need help any time. I am leaving the other questions for Galaxlex or Roly to help you. Take your time with the build and even follow layout and picture that Galaxlex provides as you go. Good luck you can do it.  :dbtu:
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 11, 2014, 06:54:00 PM
Thanks for your help Dr.  :)

More...

Lauren, trying to answer your ?'s I type it up in word and then copy/paste into a reply like this one...
But don't worry about asking multiple ?'s in multiple posts... we will figure it out.  :)

Here goes... copy/paste from Word...

Hi Lauren, Sorry! I did not mean to pressure or you or have you feel intimidated.
That is the last thing we/I want.
I understand the feeling and just want to reassure you NO ONE here will think you are stupid or get down on you for “dumb” questions.
There are no dumb questions!

(stands on soapbox)  ::)

If we were to compare abilities/knowledge in this area of electronics…

You as a total beginner, are to me, as I am to Roly.
He is light years beyond me in his training, experience, and knowledge of this subject.

So yah, I have “some” experience and hard won self taught knowledge, but for all intents and purposes, I’m a beginner.

The mechanical side of things, the actual “hands on” putting stuff together is “easy” once you have done a few...

Do you play an instrument?
Can you do things like household chores? (Not meant as a gender bias, we all do them)
Mow the lawn?
Sew?
Cook? Clean? Organize?
Operate a computer?
Mobile device?
Pound a nail?
Hang a picture?

Did you run as a baby? Maybe you crawled first… then walk… then run…

You get the point…

If you can do stuff… you can do this!  :dbtu:
Baby steps. We will help you.

(gets off soapbox)
Sorry, I get carried away sometimes….  ::)

Next... It is “standard” in electronics to have power rails + and – to feed the circuit.
It can’t operate without it. The battery power (or wall wart power, etc) has to go somewhere. Battery or other power source all have a plus or minus.
I labelled the rails I chose to use, because all parts of the circuit use power.
And those “rails” run the length of the board.
Marking them is a convenience so I know with a glance which is which.
I will be connecting parts to those rails and I don’t want to make a mistake.
They happen, but we try to minimise them by doing everything we can to help ourselves. In this case, mark the rails or whatever you choose to use for power input to the circuit. (I suggest the center rails)  ;)

Next…
The difference between the different bands/circles on the board.
Those are places we will solder parts “wires” to. Those wires are sometimes called “leads” Pronounced “leeds”.
So a resistor (You have lots!) has 2 leads. Each has to go somewhere. They (the leads) get soldered to a “pad” which you called “bands” and “circles”.
Those are “solder pads”.
The group of 3 pads will be the most useful as parts have to connect to one-another and having 3 holes all surrounded by a solder pad is very convenient for connecting parts leads to each other.

Whew! I hope that all made sense.   :)

The socket, as the Dr. said.... you don't "need" it. I chose to use one cuz I'm going to buy some different 386 chips that have a higher voltage rating so I can run the circuit from a wall wart of  possibly 12-16 volts.
So the socket is an easy way to change chips if the need ever arises. Sometimes chips "blow up" and need to be changed.
Don't worry about it too much, but if it's not hard for you to obtain a socket, (Radio Shack maybe?) by all means use one.
If not, no big deal.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 11, 2014, 07:27:07 PM
Hey galaxiex,

Thanks for the post.  The challenge with communicating through writing is that the tone and inflection get lost...I'll be sure to use more of the emoticons in the future.  :o  I was being playful with the comment about feeling pressured, though I am intimated to get this thing going. (Not because of you guys...my own nerves about the unknown, getting zapped (LOL), and wanting to do well with this, even if it takes many attempts).  I appreciate the supportive words  :) and now promise to stop apologizing for my limited knowledge and just ask questions, so that the posts don't become about building me up and rather about building the amp. 

You all have been awesome at providing me guidance and answering my many questions.  I am psyched to show you what I can do.  :tu:

Now I just need to know if the difference in the number of solder pads on my board and Roly's directions matters.  How do I compensate...do I have to move things over in any way? Thanks!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: joecool85 on September 11, 2014, 08:02:52 PM
What a great thread. As the founder of this site, I am so proud of our little online family.

No worries Lauren, if you need some confidence boosting periodically that is fine, we all go through those moments sometimes. You're doing great! I look forward to seeing your finished product.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 11, 2014, 11:32:34 PM
....
Now I just need to know if the difference in the number of solder pads on my board and Roly's directions matters.  How do I compensate...do I have to move things over in any way? Thanks!

I'm going to start quoting relevant bits so things don't get too muddled with answers to questions.  :)
(Seen that happen with other threads, other forums)

So, the total number of pads doesn't matter.
We will only use as many pads as there are circuit connection points.
Everywhere a part (also called "component") connects, we need a solder pad.

It's handy that we have a board that has multiple pad holes for component leads,
... and those multiple pad holes all connected together by a .... solder pad.  :o
In this case we have the "group of 3" pads, next to the group of 2 long horizontal "pads" (although I call then "rails"),
and the group of 2 pads near the long edges of the board.
You will notice where I test fit my socket for the chip (chip, also called an IC for Integrated Circuit, or... component, depending on the context)

(I hope I don't seem like I'm going over the top here with explanations.
Others may chime in and use different terms to describe the "same thing" so you need to be familiar with the terminology.  :) )


So my socket straddles the rails, and it's no accident this board was designed this way.
This makes it easy to make the power connections to the socket and chip, and we have the rails to connect other parts to as well.

So, (I use that word alot...  ;) ) you are free to place components wherever you choose. No compensation needed.
To follow Roly's layout... well... it might be a bit awkward since it doesn't really match this board.
(unless I missed something that is not obvious to me... Roly?)

Edit; it does match. I was wrong/looking at it wrong.  :-[

I know you like   <3) that it's called Lauren's Ruby, but since you have this board, I'm going to suggest you follow my layout.  :)

We can call it Lauren's Ruby II  <3)

Edit; No, Lauren is going to build her Ruby based on Roly's layout of Lauren's "Ruby"  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 12, 2014, 01:13:28 AM
Quote from: galaxiex
it doesn't match our circuit boards exactly. (sorry Roly  :))

Wah?  I screwed up?  Oh noze... must correct.

Huh?  Just checked against your board pic and they look he same to me.  One side of the board has two rows of donuts, the other side three, my drawing shows the amp built on the 3-row side of the board, vertical strict, horizontal ad lib.

Going with a different layout is an interesting development, but meh, we'll see how it works out; still think it's a good idea to roll both builds into one thread.

Quote from: galaxiex
Edit; took the day off work today to play and have fun...  :)

Now there dedication for ya.  I took the day off too (but wait ... I don't have a job.  :o   I'm retired but I often say that "I should get a job so I can have some time off", I still get a stream of musicians at my door with some ill waif under their arm "I know you're retired, but I was hoping...", and I'm a sucker for a bird with a broken wing).

Quote from: Lauren
I am a bit intimidated by this whole thing

Look, your have set yourself a birthday deadline which doesn't help considering you haven't done this before, BUT the build itself is only a few bucks worth of parts (and a lot of your time).  If the worst really came to the worst you could just dump your first attempt and do a second and, as we say here in Oz, "there is no sheep station hanging on it".  This is exactly what Jerri was talking about, "giving yourself permission to fail", it's okay, this is just a fun thing, it's not going to lead to the collapse of Western Civilisation if you happen to smoke a chip or something; after 50 years at this I can assure you it goes with the turf, humans make mistakes.  And as any experienced musician will tell you, we all make mistakes, the important thing is how we recover from them.

{I'm still reading down the (exploding!) thread commenting as I go, so forgive me if I double up}

Quote from: Lauren
basics

Some terminology for more effective communication.  The plain side of the board is called the "component" side, the other, obviously I hope, is called the "copper" side.

The copper itself is called a "pad" or "doughnut" for single holes, and "traces" where they connect more than one hole. (but yes, they do have a layer of gold plating to stop the copper oxidising and keep it easily solderable, about a molecule thick)

The layout is strict vertically, but needs to be positioned horizontally on the board to taste/fit.  There are 23 full height vertical (numbered) columns of holes with a shorter one at each end between the mounting holes.  I suggest that you skip the short column and one long column and call the second longest column your first, most left-hand, column - that will be the column where your power and input wires go, "1" on the layout = "3" on the board.

Quote from: Lauren
What's the difference between the individual circles and the ones grouped by the gold bands? 

That's it, some are interconnected and some aren't.  I haven't made a lot of use of that in my layout, treating it mainly as if they were all isolated.

Have a look at my layout and note where C3 is.  It runs between pin 7 of the IC and the ground "rail" or trace.  You will see that it passes over a vertical group of three.  Now if it turns out when you are actually stuffing components into the board to be easier/neater to take C3 from pin 7 down to the top of that triplet trace, then link from the bottom of the triplet to the ground rail, then do it.  Electrically it's the same, just physically a wangle, or easier.

Similarly with R3 and C4 where the triplet is used as a tie point for the connection between them.  Again this is a physical consideration, you could just twist the leads of R3/C4 together and solder them above the board.  This is sometimes called "aeroboard" construction and is a bit inelegant but sometimes required if you run out of space (which hopefully won't happen to you), not professionally perfect but still perfectly valid.

One of the first things you need to do is mark where the real links go (since in the limited programme I used I had to use blue links to map were the copper is).

Links

There are no horizontal links.  The horizontal "links" shown are only to illustrate which components are actually connected.

From left to right (using the coordinates on my layout) there are real links between;

1h-1i, 6h-6i, 7h-7i.  These connect the ground rail to some of the triplets.

6f-7e (diagonal).  Grounds pin 3 of the IC, input reference or "cold".

10g(or 10h)-13c.  Chip output to speaker.

11e-11j.  Battery +ve to the IC pin 6.

As long as connections get to where they are supposed to go (and not accidentally to somewhere else) it matters not how they get there.  (there are exceptions, but not in this case)

{There is a style of prototyping construction called "birdnesting" where you don't have a board at all, just tack solder all the bits together full length in what quickly becomes like a birds nest having a bad hair day.  This obviously isn't robust, but as long as all the connections are correct it will work just as well.}

Quote from: Lauren
Etiquette question:  Should I wait to post a new question until someone addresses the old one?

NO!  Keep 'em coming.

Quote from: galaxiex
There are no dumb questions!

None of us were born knowing anything at all about this stuff.  There are no dumb questions - the only "dumb" question is the one you failed to ask.

Quote from: Lauren
do I have to move things over in any way?

Yes (as above).  The letter rows must stay the same but the number columns need to be shifted over a little bit to get away from the edge of the board.  Assuming the short column at the end is "1" then my layout "1" will be "3" on your board, just add two to the column numbers.

{
Quote from: joecool85
What a great thread.

Sorry, I should have asked before making the "executive decision" to roll two build threads into one, but I'm glad you agree it's a good idea.}


Lauren - I'm still a little worried about your soldering skills and how to brush them up before you actually start on the board.  Have you done any before, none, some, a lot?  Have you watched any soldering "how to" vids?

The classic method is to take some fine tinned copper wire (single strand, no insulation) and make up a "drink coaster" matrix of 10x10, then solder all the joins.  Most trainees are making good joints by the end (and even the most hopeless generally get it by the end of the second  ;) ).

I hesitate at launching you off to RS again for tinned copper wire, they'll probably only stock and try and sell you a 100 metre roll when you only need a metre or so (sorry, Aussie is metricated, but then so is much of electronics).


For your iron you need some sort of stand or rest to prevent it getting out of control and burning a hole in something (e.g. you!).  A large ashtray or similar makes a good improvised rest.

You will need a damp pad for wiping the iron tip on before you make a joint.  There are specific heat resistant sponges but I find a pad made out of some old linen material works well; just get it good and damp before you start (it should sizzle slightly when you wipe).

Solder (and dross) tends to accumulate on the iron tip and you need to shake/flick this off before you wipe, therefore I have my soldering iron in a cardboard box, opening frontwards, so it forms a "booth" around the iron and catches solder splashes.

You will quickly find that your sidecutters are your favorite tool.  They allow you to form leads using them like pliers, prior to clipping off the excess.  Now about them offcuts; when you clip a component lead the offcut normally takes off for parts unknown at the speed of light, so when you actually clip a lead off you should direct the offcut away from your face.  Firing it into your "soldering booth" is one way of dealing with them, or you can just hold the offcut so it doesn't fly.

Similarly; cover yourself up.  I got up one hot summer morning and decided to do something while I was still in my dressing gown, and being hot I didn't have it wrapped around me, so when I accidentally flicked a pea-sized glob of molten solder ... you don't have to ask where it landed.  Very memorable - learn from my pain.

Before I start I generally use a felt-tip pen to mark all the holes on the component side where a component will go through.  If you just poke the tip into the hole and rotate it a bit it leaves a nice dot around the hole.  Helps keep you oriented.

Next is galaxiex's excellent suggestion that you try poking all the components in their places before attempting any actual soldering, "trying for fit".  This will expose any size conflicts (which you will somehow have to wangle to compensate for) and give you an idea of how it should look when finished.  I've tried to allow ample spacing so hopefully that won't be needed.

Polarisation:  there are some components that care very much which way they are connected, the IC, the FET, the electrolytic capacitors, and of course the battery.  The IC has its D-mark, the FET is D-shaped, and the electrolytics have a black band marked "-" (minus) to show their negative leg.  On the drawing this is shown by a small darker "D" on the negative side.

There is no danger here of getting zapped, anything exploding, burning the house down, or electroluxing the cat.  The only danger is that you might lock yourself in the bedroom in frustration.  Protip; when it all seems too much, take a break, have a coffee, even sleep on it, and things will look different when you come back fresh.

Building stuff is a bit like mountain climbing, a bit of a slog with no end in sight, then suddenly you have the world at your feet, your creation is making beautiful music and you feel great, can't stop smiling - or as I have been known to yell after knocking over a particularly difficult repair "So who's the King of the castle then?  I'm the King of the castle!".  It's a real charge and I think why people find it so addictive.  "I built that!", and in a mass produced throw-away world that's one hell of a statement.

Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 12, 2014, 01:16:28 AM
(Pedantic mode ON)  :lmao:

Reading the schematic... it's easy! Really!  :)

(http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby.png)

The big triangle in the center is our chip, LM386.
The numbers around it are the pin numbers. 12345678

The vertical zig zag lines are resistors.

The vertical zig zag lines with an arrow pointing at the zig zag is a "pot" or potentiometer, or variable resistor.

The -|(- or -||- symbols are the capacitors,
The -|(- with a plus + sign indicates an electrolytic capacitor with positive indicated,
but you will notice your *actual* part has the negative lead marked!!??
Whats up with that? I dunno, it's just the way it's done, so I live with it.
Watch the polarity marking closely on parts that have them.
They are important!  ;)

The values of each resistor and capacitor are shown next to each part.

The speaker is at the RH side, big sort of triangle thing with plus and minus indicated.
+ and - Not so important here, but important when connecting multiple speakers.

The MPF 102 JFet transistor is the circle at top left with funny lines inside the circle.

(http://swissen.in/support_images/Electronics/FET/ntype%20jfet%20symbol.gif)

And finally Power is indicated at top left as +9V. That is where our 9 volt battery positive + connects.

All across the bottom of the schematic are those funny triangle shaped horizontal lines.

(http://www.clker.com/cliparts/4/4/d/4/12236156551925934261rsamurti_RSA_IEC_Ground_Symbol.svg.thumb.png)

That is the "ground" symbol and where our 9 volt battery minus - connects.

And... lest I forget, all the lines connecting all this stuff are wires AND/OR solder pads on a circuit board.

More pedantic stuff...
Normally the components in a schematic are numbered such as R1, R2, C1, C2 etc.
U1 for an IC (or U2, U3 etc if there are more of them...

This schematic does not have part numbers so we will go by the part values.
There are not so many parts so it should not be hard to figure out.

If I say "the 220uF cap" you can look at the schematic and see right away which part I'm talking about.

Edit; posted while Roly was posting too!
(high pitched maniacal laughter) Ha ha toooo much.... information overload!!!!  :lmao:
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 12, 2014, 01:27:20 AM

Wah?  I screwed up?  Oh noze... must correct.

Huh?  Just checked against your board pic and they look he same to me.  One side of the board has two rows of donuts, the other side three, my drawing shows the amp built on the 3-row side of the board, vertical strict, horizontal ad lib.

Arrrgh! I don't/didn't see it. the "stripboard" copper traces mess with my eyes....
Sorry I find it confusing...

Must be a bit dyslexic...  :duh

Oh! Wait! I see it now! It's (the chip) turned sideways and you are only showing the "top half" of the board etc...

( I gotta remember to look at stuff for awhile until I "get it" before posting about it...)  ::)

Ok, that layout is much more compact than what I planned on doing.
No matter.  :) It's all good.  :)

Sorry Lauren for my earlier failure to see that the boards are the same.  :-[

By all means use Roly's Lauren's Ruby layout. That makes it yours! Lauren's Ruby!  <3)

(not that you need my permission.. I'm just rambling/babbleing... it's late, I'm tired, I should go to bed, gotta work in the morn...)

See Ya!  :)

(http://www.ssguitar.com/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=3561.0;attach=4909;image)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 12, 2014, 05:06:21 AM
Quote from: galaxiex
(Pedantic Explicit mode ON)

Fixed.


Just something to note depending on which exact FET Lauren is actually able to obtain, the MPF102 leads go Drain/Source/Gate (my layout) while the 2N3819 goes Drain/Gate/Source.


Quote from: galaxiex
"stripboard" copper traces mess with my eyes

Wanna know something?  Me too!  I avoid using Vero/stripboard because as soon as I look at the copper side I get instantly disoriented.  I'd much rather use "doughnut" or "dab-board" than stripboard for those projects.


Quote from: Roly
The letter rows must stay the same but the number columns need to be shifted over a little bit to get away from the edge of the board.

Sorry, sorry; this is one of those things that are "obvious" after lebenty-leben years that I should have explicitly stated somewhere.

Building stuff is a continual process of finding work-arounds for things that haven't turned out as planned.  I don't think you should have any worries, but if, for example, you run out of room when you get to the right-hand end we can always busk it by placing components on the spare half of the board if needed.


Quote from: galaxiex
that layout is much more compact

...and here's me thinking how "open" it is.   :lmao:

This;

(http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_XBLxtjUxez0/TJmTVVgjW2I/AAAAAAAAAEw/ENMIxy_oWQA/s1600/echo+base.PNG)

...is what I'd call a fairly tight layout.

{Used to work for a joint making hand-held radios, up to eight transistor stages on a 3 inch by 4 inch PCB, all the resistors standing on-end and everything packed right in there, tight as...}

Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 12, 2014, 10:02:59 AM
 8|
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 12, 2014, 12:12:45 PM
So tonight when I get home from work...
I will do a mock-up/layout of the board following Lauren's Ruby picture.  :)

... and post pics of course...  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 12, 2014, 01:17:16 PM
{  ...and I reccon I could get eight on there with a single preamp  :duh  }
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 12, 2014, 11:39:42 PM
Show off...  ;)  :)

(... but I notice they are not cascaded to have 4 gain stages in one amp,
but rather, 4 separate amps on one board... with 4 separate speaker outputs... and 4 separate inputs... 4 volume controls...)

Hmmm, a mini powered  4 channel mixer beginnings? Nah, it'd never work...  :loco


{  ...and I reccon I could get eight on there with a single preamp  :duh  }

Eight!!!  :o with one preamp!!! Now you got somethin' cowboy!!!  :lmao:

But seriously, next post will be of Lauren's Ruby test placing parts.  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 12, 2014, 11:53:26 PM
Ok following Roly's latest drawing of Lauren's Ruby here is how I started.

Note nothing is soldered yet.

Pic LR 001

I've got the board, and the picture printed.
Marked the board with the + and - to help remember which is which.  ;)
Notice there is also a "1" mark at the top to help me remember where Pin 1 is in relation to the socket.
If you don't have a socket you could just place the IC on the board.

Pic LR 002 to 006

Here I have placed all the capacitors to see how it looks.
Looks good!  :)

Notice in pic LR 006 you can see the - minus sign on the 2 electrolytic caps.

On to the next...
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 13, 2014, 12:15:05 AM
Pic LR 007

I have a PF5102 JFET that has the same pin out as the MPF 102.
From the left with the flat side facing you and the leads pointing down. 1. Drain 2. Source 3. Gate
You see on the data sheet it says "N-CHANNEL SWITCH"
No big deal, this JFET can still function as a preamp, it doesn't have to be used as a switch.
The designers may have intended for it to be a switch, and optimised it for such, but it will work just fine as a preamp in this circuit.
I always like to get the data sheet for whatever device I'm working with, for the proper pinout.
It's important to get it installed correctly!

Pics LR 008 to 010
Different views of how/where the JFET is placed.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 13, 2014, 12:24:38 AM
Pics LR 011 to 013

Here I have placed the 3 resistors.

Uh oh, R3 is not in the exact same place as the drawing.
No matter, this is what Roly was talking about several posts up...
Things don't always go according to plan.
This won't matter, we can still make the connection when we get to soldering the parts in place.
You could bend the leads on the resistor to make it fit to match the drawing.
I deliberately left it like this to illustrate the point Roly made.

That's all for tonight.
More tomorrow.  We get to soldering!  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 13, 2014, 05:48:42 AM
Quote from: galaxiex
Show off...  ;)  :)

...um...well... okay, yeah.  I did my back in at a drafting board laying out foot-square double-sided PCBs full of 74-series TTL using wax pencils and sticky "Bishop Graphics" tapes and shapes, dreaming of the software that has come along since that would make picking up a whole layout and moving it one-tenth over a simple matter rather than having to re-do the entire layout one-tenth over - then discovering that it needed to be two holes over anyway.   :grr


Quadrophonic.  Never mind 5.1 - Octophonic (now just got to find a guitar with eight pickups  :o ).

 :crazy2:
|
|->-
|->-
|->-
|->-       8)
|->-
|->-
|->-
'->-

We could connect them all in series for one watt of the most shredded shred imaginable.

 :crazy2:->-->-->-->-->-->-->-->-   :o

We could bridge them in pairs for double the output.

They would be awesome with a stereo chorus pedal.

Eight speakers arrayed in a circle of omni-directional coverage.

More seriously you could leave the two on the R-H end and add a stereo preamp for one of the smallest stereos in the world.  {Using micro pots and switches I reccon I could get that in a remote control case - I've already done a full single channel preamp (Gain, Treble, Bass, Middle, Master Vol) in a belt pack, and without going to SMD's.}

Quote from: galaxiex
a mini powered  4 channel mixer beginnings? Nah, it'd never work...  :loco

Could do that for you sure (the real difficulty being providing miniature controls that can still be operated by finger.  A cellphone App maybe?).

Just to take this idea seriously for minute; at a minimum a four channel mixer needs four input sockets, and four level controls.  Even using sub-mini pots if you piled this on top of the board it would hide it, these add a lot of volume (or to put it backwards, look how much we get inside tiny modern components).  If you aren't going to use XLRs but 6.5mm TRS you can't realistically go any smaller even 'tho you can certainly get micro plugs and sockets down to 2.5mm.  You're not going to fit this "buskers PA" into a minty tin.  {...ponder...}


The possibilities are endless (still within a mint tin).   :)


{PCB layout.  I was driving from Melbourne to Canberra one time over what we laughing call "the alps" (2,228 metres/7,310 ft) when I stopped a guy coming out of the unmade road we intended to take over the top.
"What's it like?"  I asked him.
He thought for a moment, "That" he said, "depends on what you are used to" and drove off.}


Something I do (which I don't think will work here with this DIYlayout) is to design my layout in Protel EasyTrax (free) (http://lupinesystems.com/easytrax/) as a PCB (but with an eye to it going onto stripboard), print it out actual size, then cut it out and glue it as an "overprint"* on the component side of the board.

I have found this to be very effective in culling errors at an early stage, particularly when working on Vero/strip board, because all the thinking is shifted to the front end planing/layout stage, and when you get to the actual component stuffing it's just brainless follow the dots/numbers, and you can concentrate on making a good job of the build itself without trying to work out the layout or where you are at the same time.  The result is that boards built like this have a significantly higher "go-first-time" score.

As it happens EasyTrax is flexible enough to do circuits and scale drawings in, and I've done all sorts of things from sheds to speaker boxes, in fact building my W-bin first in EasyTrax exposed a serious problem with the access hatch - before any wood was cut.

(* the white printing on the component side is called an "overprint" or "component overlay")


FET
Quote from: galaxiex
1. Drain 2. Source 3. Gate

1. the +ve end of the channel,
2. the -ve end,
3. the channel current control (normally on, -ve to turn off)

In this device the "channel" between the "Source" and the "Drain" act like a voltage-variable resistor, its value determined by the (negative) voltage on the "Gate".

At rest with zero volts on the Gate the resistance is low, but as the Gate goes negative the resistance rises to ultimately effectively open circuit, a very wide range.
{n.b. for this FET family, and there are many others that differ}

This family of FETs are quite venerable and have wide application.  In linear mode an MPF102 will amplify literally from DC to 500MHz (and Hams use them as preamps at 432MHz); overdriven they make a fine signal switch.


Tiny matter of elegance; I try to get all my resistors oriented the same way, generally tolerance band down to to the right.  They aren't polarised, but their markings are, and it doesn't matter if you follow "up+left", putting them all the same way makes it much easier to "read" the board at a glance and have all the resistor values up the right way.


In both programming and electronic construction consistency and getting rid of exception cases is important.  For example;  DIYlayout thingie is all very flash, pretty, and glitzy, but it is also very limited as a drafting tool.  It has obviously been created by a keen electronics amateur who is a somewhat better programmer.  The older version I have is slow, clunky to use, very limited and inflexible, and bug-ridden.  It was intended for just this sort of minimalist thing, stomps I would guess, but realistically that is about all it is capable of.  Even my T-50 power amp is well beyond it.

It also has a very limited range of available wire colours.  Now I don't expect 16-billion ('tho why not?) but the basic resistor colour code set would have struck me an a good starting minimum, and if it could use the "base-trace" method of a base colour and a different spiral trace colour then you would have a rational set of 100 different and specific wire colours, but no, just a few, and some of those (black, green, red) already spoken for.   >:(
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 13, 2014, 08:52:33 AM
Good morning!  Thanks, galaxiex, for posting step by step pics...Using then along side Roly's diagram is helping me get started.  Soooo, I just realized that your diagram is only using 1/2 the board, up until the solid line of pads (sorry...I tried to go through the thread to find the correct terminology, but there's too much info for me to find it.  LOL).  If you were sitting with me right now, you'd be laughing at how often I am saying, out loud, "Ohhhh!" as I reread what you've written and actually put things together.  It makes a lot more sense when it's actually necessary to understand for the build.  :)
I actually understand now how you labeled the board, too.  Sorry for saying they didn't match!  Even with all of your explanations as to why it does, it was not until this moment (actually working on it) that the light bulb went off. At least it did, right?  :dbtu:

I ordered a Helping Hand that should be here on Monday.  I think this is definitely a necessary tool, as [someone--sorry, again I can't find you in the thread!] mentioned earlier.  I am curious as to whether you trim the ends off of things like the capacitor, since the are so long.  Don't worry--I'm not cutting anything.  Just wondering. ;)

Taking pics as I go, too.  Will post when I have something that looks like galaxiex's.  :tu:

Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 13, 2014, 08:59:31 AM
How do I delete a post I started to draft and then changed my mind on?? It doesn't give a cancel option that I can see.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 13, 2014, 09:11:34 AM
Possible roadblock:


C2: 100uF Mine does not look like galaxiex's; it has leads (?) coming out of both ends.  Do I need to exchange it for something else? 
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 13, 2014, 09:13:32 AM
And OMG, how do I figure out which resistor is which from my ridiculous collection???
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 13, 2014, 09:15:15 AM
Good morning!  Thanks, galaxiex, for posting step by step pics...Using then along side Roly's diagram is helping me get started.  Soooo, I just realized that your diagram is only using 1/2 the board, up until the solid line of pads (sorry...I tried to go through the thread to find the correct terminology, but there's too much info for me to find it.  LOL).  If you were sitting with me right now, you'd be laughing at how often I am saying, out loud, "Ohhhh!" as I reread what you've written and actually put things together.  It makes a lot more sense when it's actually necessary to understand for the build.  :)
I actually understand now how you labeled the board, too.  Sorry for saying they didn't match!  Even with all of your explanations as to why it does, it was not until this moment (actually working on it) that the light bulb went off. At least it did, right?  :dbtu:

I ordered a Helping Hand that should be here on Monday.  I think this is definitely a necessary tool, as [someone--sorry, again I can't find you in the thread!] mentioned earlier.  I am curious as to whether you trim the ends off of things like the capacitor, since the are so long.  Don't worry--I'm not cutting anything.  Just wondering. ;)

Taking pics as I go, too.  Will post when I have something that looks like galaxiex's.  :tu:

Hi Lauren, and good morning!  :)

Yup, actually working on it, things come to light, compared to all the "thinking" and theory.
Hands-on, that's the ticket! Visualization of the concept/project takes shape with doing.  8)

Helping Hands really helps. When I first started doing this (electronics) I resisted buying one. (dunno why....  :duh)
Then a friend needed something electronic built and she bought me a Helping Hands as payment for the work.  :)
That is the one you see in the pictures. And now it is my most often used tool.

Trimming the long leads...
After soldering the parts in place we will trim the leads then.
(yuch, my english teacher would roll in her grave at that "sentence")  :lmao:

Cheers! (with coffee, mine might have Bailey's in it)  ;)
Dale
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 13, 2014, 09:16:58 AM
How do I delete a post I started to draft and then changed my mind on?? It doesn't give a cancel option that I can see.
Just click on something else, e.g. the home button at the top of the page, that will take you out of your draft and you can start over.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 13, 2014, 09:17:43 AM
Possible roadblock:


C2: 100uF Mine does not look like galaxiex's; it has leads (?) coming out of both ends.  Do I need to exchange it for something else?

No need to exchange. we can work with it.
Will show you later...
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 13, 2014, 09:22:04 AM
And OMG, how do I figure out which resistor is which from my ridiculous collection???

That may take a bit of learning.  :)
No problem, Google search for "resistor color code" and you will get a chart that should help.
Find one you like and print it.
From there I bet you can figure it out,  ;) if not, we will help.  :)

Wikipedia has one. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_color_code (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_color_code)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 13, 2014, 09:57:32 AM
Quote from: Lauren
At least it did, right?  :dbtu:

Yes, you did.   :dbtu:


One of the good things about threads like this is that anybody can go back and review ("now... somebody said something about this...") and it's all still there (mistakes, side tracks, red herrings, 'n all).


Quote from: Lauren
I am curious as to whether you trim the ends off of things like the capacitor, since the are so long.

You do.  (see "offcuts" above, and related safety tips)

That's what your small pliers and sidecutters are so handy for, forming these leads where they are supposed to go.  There are many ways of doing it according to taste and dexterity, but basically you have two component leads poking through the board that have to get connected.

What I generally do is fold the first down next to the other (being careful to form it to avoid touching any other connections or wires), and clip it off just past there, then do the same to the other lead, so one is going "forwards" and the other "backwards", mildly crossed-over/twisted if you can arrange it.  Then you get busy with the soldering iron.  I'm sure you will quickly evolve a method that works and suits you.



Protip: giving component leads a rub with steel wool or kitchen scourer before soldering makes them easier to solder, they "wet" and take the solder better.



Apart from the insulated hookup wire going off the board to things like the pots, you are unlikely to need any extra wire on the board itself (some component side links aside).  Even when a lead does turn out to be too short you now have a bunch of lead offcuts on the bench you can use as a bridge.  I use these offcuts all the time for all sorts of things.

When you are building stuff your sidecutters are in you hand more than any other tool, and you also use them as power tweezers to form and bend leads as well as cut them, so a good pair with comfortable handles are a good investment.  I also have a set of suture clamps/hemostats that I use all the time for all sorts of things, micro-pliers and holders that are very useful.

You remain silent about your soldering experience.

None, some a lot?

(http://web2.arthurphil-h.schools.nsw.edu.au/groups/electronics/wiki/77c73/images/254f4.jpg)


Quote from: Lauren
How do I delete a post I started to draft and then changed my mind on?? It doesn't give a cancel option that I can see.

Just dump it using your browser "back" button, left-arrow top-left somewhere normally.


Quote from: Lauren
C2: 100uF Mine does not look like galaxiex's; it has leads (?) coming out of both ends.

Ha ha.  An axial type.  The single-ended ones are more common these days and are call "radial".   Don't bother to exchange, we'll just busk it.

Its can length and diameter please?

In any case, it will go on its side horizontally between "i" and "j", +ve to the right, somewhere between the two vertical red wires.  Its -ve end to "i3" (your i5) and the +ve end to the +ve rail "j" wherever looks good, say around your j10-12 depending on its length.

The toyware I used to do that drawing doesn't inhabit a world where there are axial capacitors anyway.  I have a much better circuit drafting package but it's only black and white (and the one I really want to use, I can't get the images off).
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 13, 2014, 11:20:45 AM
I don't know if you have absorbed all the previous posts. There is alot! to take in.
Nice thing about this is you can go back and review.
Please don't feel like you "have to keep up".
Take your time, do what you can at YOUR pace, not ours.
You are learning so much that is completely new to you, it can be (probably is) overwhelming.
Go back and review, re-read posts, all the way back to the beginning if you like.
I've done that a couple times already, just to get a "feel" for how this thread has progressed.

Edit; you are viewing this on a full size computer monitor, right?
Not a hand held device?
I've looked at this thread on my i-phone and it's hard to see stuff.
At least a laptop with a decent screen?

So... carrying on...

Here's some pics to show how I took Roly's suggestion to mark the places where parts go.
Felt-tip pen, on each place where a lead goes.
Makes it MUCH easier after I remove parts, to then place and solder them one-at-a-time.  :)

Please note the last pic LR 018

I have moved C2 the 100uF cap to a different location.
The important things to note are that the circuit will still work if I solder it there.
Notice it would still be electrically connected to the same things, to wit the + and - rails.
To re-state; It doesn't matter where the parts are placed, as long as they are properly connected to where they need to go.

Next post, that pesky 100uF cap you have, that doesn't match mine.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 13, 2014, 11:29:11 AM
The 100uF cap you have is an Axial type, compared to mine which is described as a Radial type.

Axial; the leads exit the cap along it's axis. Make sense?

Check the pics.  :)

See how I bent the minus - lead so it is now "sorta" like a radial cap and allows me to install it on the close-spaced + - rails?
Easy peasy.  8)

Your axial cap may not look exactly like the one I show, but I bet it's similar.  ;)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 13, 2014, 11:45:55 AM
After you have tried your components for size and layout, the last thing you do before you start seriously stuffing with soldering in mind, is give the copper side of your board a good scrubbing with steel wool (or a scourer) until it is shiny bright, then avoid touching any of the copper while you countcount, stuff, fold, cut, solder, countcount, stuff, fold, cut solder, ...  Like scrubbing the leads, this makes the copper much more receptive to solder.


Quote from: Lauren
And OMG, how do I figure out which resistor is which from my ridiculous collection???

Like a wombat,

(http://c3e308.medialib.glogster.com/media/fd/fd981840d43d40f7fd21eb40f3f5a4cdb22d05d2b785218ac9f1a332191f434a/wombat-8989-jpg.jpg)

...the first step is to find which end of the critter is which.

(http://extra.shu.ac.uk/dac/RESISTOR.gif)

Head-to-tail it goes;

head end - three coloured rings - a bit of a gap - a gold ring - another gap - tail end

The gold ring must be on your right, as a full stop, to read the colour rings left-to-right.

(http://www.minikits.com.au/image/cache/data/components/resistor3-500x500.jpg)
(Red/Violet/Brown - using the chart above, what is the value of this resistor?  Test next period.   ;) )


Sorting:

You will need six somethings to hold your resistors (e.g. cheap plastic butter containers, shoebox and envelopes).

Sort your resistors into six piles based on the colour of the third ring.  This is the multiplier and will divide them into their decade ranges, 1, 10, 100, ...


Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 13, 2014, 05:22:33 PM
"Alright, this is a blues riff in B, watch me for the changes and try to keep up...."  :lmao:  8)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ox1pkvNHZko (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ox1pkvNHZko)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 14, 2014, 05:18:24 AM
 :lmao:
One of our "locals", John Castellain, jus' jammin'.  Nat is so tight, great "feel" drummer.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlC3I6s3VRA&list=UUBBzPG5q5ltCoCyU9vWvwdg (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlC3I6s3VRA&list=UUBBzPG5q5ltCoCyU9vWvwdg)


Quote from: galaxiex
Edit; you are viewing this on a full size computer monitor, right?

Funny you should say that.  What with "tapatalk" and stuff being missed I was wondering the same thing.

Lauren, I think for best results you will have to try and get this thread up on a laptop or desktop screen so you don't miss the detail.


Quote from: galaxiex
Makes it MUCH easier after I remove parts

A major problem with all these generalised perf-boards is orientation, they look like featureless desert whichever way you look.  A normal etched PCB has unique detail everywhere on both sides so orienting yourself is easy.

When I glue down a paper overprint that takes care of the component side, but then I clamp a sewing needle in my suture clamps and punch a hole where every component lead will go, no (mis)counting or thinking, just go over the overprint like a robot.  Now hold the board up to the light and the "drilling pattern" can now be seen from the copper side (which helps you mark the strip cuts indicated on the overprint), it becomes a bit more like a conventional PCB.

{Good pix BTW, well lit and crisp.  :dbtu: }


Are we there yet?   ;)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 14, 2014, 08:07:21 AM
:lmao:
One of our "locals", John Castellain, jus' jammin'.  Nat is so tight, great "feel" drummer.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlC3I6s3VRA&list=UUBBzPG5q5ltCoCyU9vWvwdg (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlC3I6s3VRA&list=UUBBzPG5q5ltCoCyU9vWvwdg)

Cool!  8)  :dbtu:


..........What with "tapatalk".......

Yep, that's why I asked.  :)

{Good pix BTW, well lit and crisp.  :dbtu: }

Thanks!  :)
Other times, forums, places, I have seen folks ask for help and upload pics that are....
dark, grainy, blurry, out of focus and with a poorly contrasting badly cluttered background.
(can't even make out what the thing is, never mind trying to help with it)  ::)
WTF, Don't they *look* at the pics before uploading???   :grr

I'm by no means a pro photographer (tho my brother is) and I don't really have an eye for it,
But I hate dislike very much, lousy photos.
I know a bad one when I see it. So I try.

It's just an old cheap little point and shoot Kodak but It seems to do ok.
The only bad thing about the camera is the files are HUGE and I have to convert them (every one!) for uploading.
I use Buzz 3D media converter, free download.  :) Can batch convert so it's not so bad...

Are we there yet?   ;)

 :lmao: :lmao: :lmao:
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 14, 2014, 08:37:31 AM
Spent yesterday painting the living room and dining room, with a bit more to go, but I'm hoping to get somewhere with this today!

Roly:  I have zero soldering experience.  I will watch many youtube videos and will enlist the help of my husband.  The idea of surprising him with this is long gone, given my repeated trips to RadioShack and my sudden obsession with my iPad and this site.  LOL.  He's very excited for the results and asked yesterday if I'll ever be able to make him a stomp box.  So, don't worry about me disappearing after this build is done (I'm sure you were all terrified of that. LOL). I sense a new thread a'comin'. :)

I have been using Tapatalk to post any pics, b/c I can't do it through this site, for some reason.  But I generally read the threads through the site.  What is wrong with Tapatalk?

I am viewing on my iPad, and it has been working out so far.  Enables me to enlarge pics easily to see detail. :)

Going to try to catch up to galaxiex.  Really appreciate the step-by-step photos.   <3)



Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 14, 2014, 08:57:13 AM
 I noticed that all of the resistors have a copper-colored band.  In galaxiex's pics, I noticed two out of 3 times, the copper band in on top, but once, it's on the bottom.  Just making sure it doesn't matter. :)

Those pics really saved me from trying to figure out which were the right resistors from my huge pile!!   :tu:
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 14, 2014, 09:09:53 AM
Can you please tell me what color the bands are on R3?  I can't make it out from the pic and there are a couple in my batch that look similar. 

Thanks!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 14, 2014, 09:20:44 AM
I can't figure out the quote feature...it just takes the whole post and won't let me select a small portion. LOL. 

Roly said: "In any case, it will go on its side horizontally between "i" and "j", +ve to the right, somewhere between the two vertical red wires.  Its -ve end to "i3" (your i5) and the +ve end to the +ve rail "j" wherever looks good, say around your j10-12 depending on its length."

How do I tell the -ve end from the +ve end?  Is it by using the arrow on the body that is pointing toward one end?  I don't see +/- signs anywhere on the component itself. 

Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 14, 2014, 09:27:35 AM

Both Caps I have look the same (except for size).
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 14, 2014, 09:41:23 AM
I noticed that all of the resistors have a copper-colored band.  In galaxiex's pics, I noticed two out of 3 times, the copper band in on top, but once, it's on the bottom.  Just making sure it doesn't matter. :)

Those pics really saved me from trying to figure out which were the right resistors from my huge pile!!   :tu:

Nope, it doesn't matter which way the resistors go, but as Roly pointed out in a previous post,
it's an aesthetic thing to have them all installed the same way.

Since I was just "trying things on for size" I didn't pay attention to which way the R's were installed.
When I get to soldering I like to do as Roly says... and install them all the same way.
Usually top to bottom and/or left to right.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 14, 2014, 09:42:33 AM
Can you please tell me what color the bands are on R3?  I can't make it out from the pic and there are a couple in my batch that look similar. 

Thanks!

R3 is brown, black, black. gold.  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 14, 2014, 09:58:17 AM
I can't figure out the quote feature...it just takes the whole post and won't let me select a small portion. LOL. 

Notice when you quote a post at the top there is a

[quote etc etc followed by another bracket]

text here...

then it ends with...

[/quote]

Delete, backspace, cut anything INSIDE the

[quote etc etc]

delete stuff here... and keep what you want...

[/quote]

The snippet MUST begin with the top [....] and MUST end with [/quote]

I can't find the  "it will go on its side horizontally between "i" and "j",... what is the "it" please?


How do I tell the -ve end from the +ve end?  Is it by using the arrow on the body that is pointing toward one end?  I don't see +/- signs anywhere on the component itself.

Which component please?  :)

Edit; Oh, the capacitor?
Notice the arrow has a minus sign *-* inside the arrow.
That is pointing to the -ve end.

Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 14, 2014, 10:14:37 AM
My newish phone cam is pretty good, but I've got a cheapy from Aldi's that does a really good job of macros (which is what I really wanted it for) and a lousy job of telephoto bird pix (which was my secondary interest).  {I've actually tried my phone cam on one side of my bird watching binoculars and it worked very well for hand-held, so I have to kludge some sort of adapter.}

All the points you made, plus, whatever the camera, pile in the light - they all work better, digital or film.  I've used Irfanview (free) (http://www.irfanview.com/) for nearly all my image viewing/processing needs i.e. mainly the website (http://ozvalveamps.org), cropping, reduction, Gamma correction.



Quote from: Lauren
The idea of surprising him with this is long gone, given my repeated trips to RadioShack and my sudden obsession with my iPad and this site.  LOL.
laugh

I have to confess that I think the whole thing is very romantic ... in a kinda feminist way.  (my first wife was a Radiation Chemist (CFC/ozone research).

I think Jerri { I  <3) a bass-playing geekgirrrl } is a good example of where you can find yourself if you follow your curiosity.  She did, I did, I'm sure many got into electronics (Maker) the same way.

Quote from: Lauren
asked yesterday if I'll ever be able to make him a stomp box.

Absolutely.  I have no doubt about it, and it's the logical next step (in your rapidly growing addiction evil ).

There is a fairly large mountain of kits and designs out there that cover just about anything you can think of.  Hack-A-Day is a good showcase for what people are tinkering with, and sometimes to an amazingly high level of dedication and applied expertise.

There are designs galore for stomps of all sorts (and quality), ranging from very complete to a bear bones circuit.  And many of them actually work.  {which is another way of saying that there is a fair bit of total rubbish out there too}


Here is a build thread for an ol' reliable, the S.H.O. {don't ask, it's tasteless, but it's otherwise right for you}

http://www.tdpri.com/forum/stomp-box/131426-quick-easy-diy-sho.html
 (http://www.tdpri.com/forum/stomp-box/131426-quick-easy-diy-sho.html)

Quote from: Lauren
I sense a new thread a'comin'. :)

Easy WonderWoman!  Steady, settle, poco a poco, it'll all go down in it's own good time.


You really need to get some sort of soldering practice in somehow before you start on the board. 

Quote from: Lauren
What is wrong with Tapatalk?

Nuthin' at all, just implies that you might be struggling with a small screen.


Cop this find;

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2JPMGikkow
 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2JPMGikkow)
{Disclaimer: I'm not boosting any particular company or product, but the How To Build in this is excellent.}



Quote from: Lauren
I noticed that all of the resistors have a copper-colored band.  In galaxiex's pics, I noticed two out of 3 times, the copper band in on top, but once, it's on the bottom.  Just making sure it doesn't matter. :)

Resistors are not polarised, they are bi-directional.

Having them all in the same direction is more a matter of easy readability of their values (covered above, post #45?).

The "copper colour" is actually supposed to be gold (and may be silver in some cases) and is the "tolerance band", in this case defining 5% resistors; the actual value of all resistors will be within 5% of their nominal value.

Its only interest here is to identify the bum end of the resistor so you can read its value in the right direction.


R3 is in series with the 47nF at the output and is 10 ohms, brown-black-black-(gold).
Brown = 1
Black = 0
Black = 100, i.e. 10 to the zero, or times 1
10 x 1 = 10.


Quote from: Lauren
I can't figure out the quote feature...it just takes the whole post and won't let me select a small portion. LOL. 

You can quote the whole lot then edit out what you don't want.  I do all my editing and markup locally in my logging file (my editor has a lot of macros for easy markup) then copy paste the post.

The quote is part of your message and you can edit it, just be careful of the BBC Markup (http://wiki.simplemachines.org/smf/Alphabetical_list_of_all_bulletin_board_codes).



Quote from: Lauren
Both Caps I have look the same (except for size).

Well just do the same lay-down thing with C5 as with C3 (above), there should be room.

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Capacitors_electrolytic.jpg/220px-Capacitors_electrolytic.jpg)

The negative is the right-hand lead on the axial above (note the stylised arrows), and the lower lead on the radial below.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 15, 2014, 05:49:58 PM
Just wanted to share my new tool...my Helping Hand arrived today! I am unnaturally excited about it. Lol
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 15, 2014, 06:13:34 PM

In any case, it will go on its side horizontally between "i" and "j", +ve to the right, somewhere between the two vertical red wires.  Its -ve end to "i3" (your i5) and the +ve end to the +ve rail "j" wherever looks good, say around your j10-12 depending on its length.


Can leads from two different components overlap?  C2 is slightly overlapping R2 on my board right now.

Also, where does my axial C5 go (specifically)?
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 15, 2014, 06:22:06 PM
Not sure if you already addressed this, but does it matter which side of the board I work on?  galaxiex is on the non-copper side, I noticed in the pics. 
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: DrGonz78 on September 15, 2014, 07:13:33 PM
Not sure if you already addressed this, but does it matter which side of the board I work on?  galaxiex is on the non-copper side, I noticed in the pics.

Yup it does matter as you want that side with the copper to be "the solder side" of the board. In the end you will be soldering onto that side of the board so it is important to insert your component from the other side. Call the component side "The top of the board" and the copper side "the bottom of the board." Component side has no copper and the bottom side of the board has the copper.

Edit: Question... Is that the copper side we see with components on your pic?
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 15, 2014, 07:16:19 PM
Thanks, DrGonz78!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 15, 2014, 10:06:55 PM
Just wanted to share my new tool...my Helping Hand arrived today! I am unnaturally excited about it. Lol

A true DIYer to be excited about new tools!   <3)  :dbtu:

Yep, components go on the "top" side. Flip board over to solder the component leads on the copper side.
Can be tricky to hold parts in place for soldering when the board is up-side down.
One trick is to use tape of some kind to hold the parts when you flip the board to solder.
Roly mentioned putting the parts in place (one at a time) and then while holding them, turn board over (copper side up) and bend the leads to where they need to go.
The bent leads now hold the part, then you solder, and go on to the next part.

Did you watch this?    :dbtu:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2JPMGikkow

The good stuff starts at 3:51, the whole vid is only 8.5 minutes so worth it to watch!  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 16, 2014, 03:49:56 AM
Quote from:
Can leads from two different components overlap?  C2 is slightly overlapping R2 on my board right now.

Also, where does my axial C5 go (specifically)?

Yes. The two leads from C2 and R2 both go to the ground rail so it doesn't matter if they touch.

Do the same lay-down with C5 as with C2, say between your c17 and 21b or 22b depending on its length, whatever seems neat.


How and WHY to Solder Correctly;
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_NU2ruzyc4 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_NU2ruzyc4)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 22, 2014, 07:31:55 PM
Hey Lauren, what's happening? You still with us?  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 22, 2014, 07:42:38 PM
I am!  Sorry I've been MIA.  Life got busy suddenly with a sudden burst of motivation to do some work on our house.  :)  Would love to have this completed by Oct. 14 (anniversary), so I'll be working on this again soon! Have you started soldering?
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 22, 2014, 07:59:05 PM
I am!  Sorry I've been MIA.  Life got busy suddenly with a sudden burst of motivation to do some work on our house.  :)  Would love to have this completed by Oct. 14 (anniversary), so I'll be working on this again soon! Have you started soldering?

ummm, no.... I've been busy too, working on some other stuff.

Congrats on your anniversary!  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 23, 2014, 12:04:20 AM
Oh good, glad you're still with us, I was beginning to worry.

Lovely Spring day here today.  Mowed lawn.  Gave the truck a wash - once ever five years without fail whether it needs it or not.  Down to Melbourne later to hand-hold SWMBO while she has a minor op.

Went past the local parts supplier last week and grabbed a couple of LM386's ... er ... (just in case?)  I mean, I need yet another guitar amp like I need a hole in the head, but all the bits have strangely gathered on the bench awaiting my return, so I guess I may as well join in the fun, eh?
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 23, 2014, 06:36:12 PM
OK.  So, I placed all of my components into the CORRECT side of the circuit board  :loco and would like you to look it over to make sure C2 and C5 are in the right places.  I am still missing Q1 and C3, but I did get the pot I ordered in the mail. (That sounds wrong.  LOL).  If it's all in the right places, do I have to test something to make sure they work, or do I have to wait until I get the missing components?  I bought a multimeter and wire strippers, but I am waiting for galaxiex to post pics of the next steps so I know what to do with the wires.   ;)

Seriously, those pictures are SO helpful.   <3)  What I started to do to create a system that really works for me (and I think will help in the future) is to record things in a notebook with the "coordinates" of where things go.  So, for example, "C1: 6B-6D" will help me put things together again without looking at pictures.

Hope I'm on the right track!  I will mark the spaces like galaxiex did once I get the stamp of approval that it's all in the right place.  Thanks!!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 23, 2014, 06:38:50 PM
Sorry it's a little dark...I can't find my camera and have to use my iPhone. :/
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 24, 2014, 08:12:29 AM
{Still off base, truck conked outside my sons place  :'( (thankfully - he's a mechanic).  Treated to the sight of SWMBO with a micro TV camera up her nose, almost took a pic, and we didn't get live action vids  8| , prognosis good.  Mad Spring rains so I'm better off the roads anyway.}


Looking good.  With your big caps we try to place them so the leads are formed in a small bend then straight down to the hole so they are firmly held.

The main supply by-pass cap, C2 100uF, has to connect across the two long supply rails that run across the board.  Horizontally it doesn't matter exactly which holes the leads go through, only that the + and - lead go through the correct rows to connect to their respective rails.

The same is true for the output caps C5, get it to lay down nicely, its +ve end is fairly fixed but the other end can go to the nearest copper doublet.

How to form component leads (formal, reality often ain't so neat)

(http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/NEETS-Modules/images/14321img11.gif)

{If you want to dig into electronics, NEETS US Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (http://jacquesricher.com/NEETS/), is the on-line go to.}


Quote from: Lauren
I did get the pot I ordered in the mail. (That sounds wrong.  LOL).

I thought it was legal over there now.   :lmao:

No, you can't do any live testing until all the components are in place and connected.  Before that you have your final build cold checking to do, starting at some known point, input, IC pin, etc, then tracing where its connections actually go - everywhere they should, and nowhere they shouldn't.  I've certainly picked up my own bloopers, like mis-counting pins on a big IC, at this checking stage.

Then we do the "smoke test".

{camera tip; film or digital, pour in the (diffuse) light  :dbtu: }
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 29, 2014, 06:01:11 PM
Can someone tell me if the second item in this pic is one of my missing components?  Thanks!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on September 29, 2014, 06:12:22 PM
At some point, I would love to understand how you decide what goes where on the board and why.  Just throwing that out there because it's on my mind...right now, my brain is too full with trying to figure out how to build this without trying to understand the whys of it, too.  But it's something I wonder as I stare at the schematics.  :) 

Roly: Is it possible to do a schematic of the underside of the board, or is that a silly request? Galaxiex:  When you take your pics, can you take one of the underside?  I don't know why, but I feel it might help me.   :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on September 30, 2014, 01:41:18 AM
Can someone tell me if the second item in this pic is one of my missing components?  Thanks!

If you mean the NTE 489 JFET P-channel... then no. You want an N-channel JFET

The 3rd item is what you want, The NTE 457 JFET-N-CH.

 :) Please try to refer to electronics parts by their numbers.  :)

With electronics there are soooo many different parts that are all very similar in appearance yet for all that they look the same... many/most will NOT interchange.

Sure I can take a pic of the underside/copper side of the board.
Won't be until tomorrow night tho...
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on September 30, 2014, 03:22:01 AM
Quote from: Lauren
Can someone tell me if the second item in this pic is one of my missing components?  Thanks!

Your FET is in a little D-shaped cylinder of hard plastic with three wires coming out the end (bottom).
{ps well caught  galaxiex, missed that.  P-Channel or N-Channel?  Yes mam, we got both kinds of music, Country and Western.  Positive channel and negative channel FETs are mirror-images of each other polarity-wise, and, unlike C&W, are not interchangeable.}

Caution: catalogues normally only photograph one of each "kind", so in some cases the actual device may be (somewhat) different, so consider pix as "looks like (sortamaybe)".


Quote from: Lauren
I would love to understand how you decide what goes where on the board and why.

"Sketching is essential to creativity" - The Universal Traveler

You plonk down a large rectangle in the middle of the paper and call it the IC.  It's the key component, has more connections, and requires the power supply.

So you sketch in a conceptual power supply, and here reality starts to intrude.  You happen to have a PCB that already has a pair of rails intended to distribute power to a row of IC's.  Why re-invent the wheel and just go with the flow?  Well yeah.  So you shift the IC to the middle of the now defined target PCB (galaxiex) or you consider that but decide to lob it on one side so it's (hopefully) simpler to follow/build (Roly).

I've got copperless matrix, one-pad-per-hole dab board, "Vero" stripboard, and some more committed PCBs like yours with DIP IC's more in mind, but the board you bought condensed the PCB part to a given constraint, it's what I now had to work around, not my first choice but at least now very well defined.

What you have to hand in your junkbox/supplies store strongly influences what you do, which way you go, both at home and in industry.

When you turn on your iron the whole world awaits, and you have to start making choices about which bit you will explore, and there is too much flamin' choice.  There are just so many different ways you can get results, with so many different components, controls, and dress hardware such as knobs, switches, and sockets.


So now you have selected your IC and PCB, placed the IC in the middle of the PCB, now you work around its pins joining up the dots, a resistor here to go there, a capacitors there to go over there ... no that won't work, she's got axial, not radial ... um {sucks end of mouse - not as satisfying as Ye Olde Pencil.}

And so start the recursive loops of design, or circuit layout in this case.

It's a bit like a SuDuKu or crossword; you try stuff until you hit a constraint, such as the edge of the board, and either some detail has to change or the whole lot has to be moved over a bit, back off and take a different run at it.  The capacitors they sent are the right value but much bigger than I had allowed for, so I'm going to have to shuffle some components over to make room for them.

It would be interesting to have a time lapse of me doing that layout to see how parts moved around before coming to rest.

With all stages of design there is a lot of looping back and reworking previous work due to striking some constraint ranging from "you can't get those any more" to "it won't fit".  It's kinda three steps forward and one sideways.  And occasionally you land on a snake and return all the way to Go.  {"Okay, now that you have spent $100,000 and three months proving you can't put wine in plastic bags like that, would you like to reconsider my idea?"}


This leads indirectly to "you can start building before you have all the parts, but you can't start testing until all the parts are in place".   {and I'm reminded of $100k of trout farm controllers that sat in the corner for months waiting for a few long promised digital panel meters (that never came)}.


Quote from: Lauren
Is it possible to do a schematic of the underside of the board, or is that a silly request?

Yes.  No.

If you don't have any sort of graphics package may I warmly suggest (freeware) Irfanview (http://www.tucows.com/preview/194967)?

Pull up the layout, flip L-R, save as layout reversed. (attach)

This is called the "copper side" view and is actually the industry standard view of a PCB, not X-ray from the component side as these DIYLayout Creator pictorial renders are.

The professional and the amateur literally view the PCB from opposite sides.


Historical
PCB are made in graphics layers called "artworks", copper side, component side copper (for double-sided boards), component side printed "component overlay", drilling map, and more depending on complexity.

Traditionally this was done on large sheets of inch-by-tenth graph paper twice actual size in black, blue and red pencil.  At this phase, layout by seat of the pants, there was an awful lot of erasing and re-working.

Next a transparent sheet was taped over the layout and the black and blue used to guide the placement of self-stick symbols and crepe tapes for tracks.  Then the red side.  The the overlay.  and finally off to photography to be reduced and made a solid negative.

This is then photo-impressed on photo-sensitised plain copper laminate PCB, etched with hot ferric-chloride, washed, drilled, cropped, and bingo, I find where I have made mistakes.  Again.  So at least part of the whole cycle repeats until it works or I get fired.

Today we got 'puters.  (and boy did I dream of them back in those days)

DIY Layout Creator (https://code.google.com/p/diy-layout-creator/downloads/detail?name=diylc-3.28.0.zip&can=2&q=) is specifically for small projects on stripboard (but adaptable, as in your case).  And free.


"Why is that component connected there?"  is a different question, but this little IC makes a good platform for some basic concepts, however it does mean we have to have a look inside at the internal circuit to understand the role of the external components in its operation.


Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on October 02, 2014, 05:40:32 PM
I just got majorly confused...please clarify.  I bought the .047uF Caps.  They look like the ones galaxiex used in his build (2 caps with large green tops).  I also bought another package of 0.047uF caps that look completely different.  They are much smaller and have an orange top.   The only difference is one is Polyester-Film and the other is Ceramic-Disc.  According to the specs, either type is fine.  Are these both the same? They look so different.

I still am having trouble getting my hands on the transistor I need and I keep buying the wrong cap...I *think* I am missing the .1uF cap at this point.  I will try to exchange what I bought tomorrow.  I am also confused that the plans list all of the components, but say nothing about a speaker.  What kind of speaker am I looking for? How big/powerful, and will it have some kind of hookup ports attached to it?

Thanks!
Thanks!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: joecool85 on October 02, 2014, 08:27:19 PM
If they are both .047uf, they are the same (for this project anyway). For certain things you might need a specific type of capacitor along with its proper value.

Speaker wise I would get the largest guitar speaker that will fit the enclosure you are using. Figure out the size and we'll give you tips from there.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on October 03, 2014, 12:51:16 PM
Quote from: Lauren
one is Polyester-Film and the other is Ceramic-Disc.

A capacitor consists of two conducting plates or electrodes separated by a thin insulating material generically known as a "dielectric".  These caps have the same capacitance value and are generally interchangeable, but they are made with different dielectrics and so have some different properties.

For our situation the poly's would be the slightly better choice, as they are somewhat better in audio circuits (the ceramics can be slightly microphonic), however you could use either and not notice any difference in the sound.  Ceramics tend to be a bit cheaper and poly's tend to be a bit better quality.

Quote from: Lauren
I still am having trouble getting my hands on the transistor

You are just going to have to go mail order.  I hear some of the suppliers over there are very quick, the ones here are.

But if you are going back to your local hokum RS anyway then try tackling the problem from a different angle - what small signal n-channel J-FET('s) do they stock?  Write down the part number(s) (e.g. "2Nnnnn", "Jnnn", "MPFnnn" etc) and post and we'll see.  If they don't stock any then give them a dark "that's-totally-hopeless" look and take your leave of this cheese-free cheese shop.

Is there some other electronics place/joint/activity such as a TV repairer in your area, any Ham radio clubs or nearby operators you could front up to and introduce yourself.  None of your parents into electronics?  Hackerspace?  These dudes will know where to get stuff locally, and as you only want a single N-channel J-FET I'll bet somebody will give you a few (coz you've got a great backstory).


First rule of guitar speakers - bigger is better, at least up to 12-inch.

Second rule of guitar speakers (but the First Rule of micro amps such as this) - efficiency is everything.  This is given (or should be) in "dB/W" decibels of racket per watt in (at a range of 1m).  Forget anything below 90dB/W, 100dB/W is good, and any more is icing on the pud, but every dB counts.

Caution: Hi-Fi and car speakers won't cut it by a large margin (in other words RS are very unlikely to have what you need).

Happily efficiency tends to rise with diameter.

How we connect the amp to the speaker depends on what you have decided for "packaging".

If you have decided to go "head and cab", e.g. the amp in a mint tin and the speaker in a tea chest, then both will need connectors and a lead with plugs to match.

If you have decided to go "combo", e.g. the amp and speaker mounted in the same plastic jerrycan, then the speaker will wire directly to the amp via a socket which can be used to automatically disconnect the internal speaker when the amp is plugged in to an external cabinet, and assuming your partner already has an amp and speaker, this is something he will want to try. {and small amps like this can give quite astonishing results when plugged into a large cabinet like a "quad box" with four 12's).  Or for headphones.

{By about the third battery you will be considering adding a socket for a plugpack/wall wart.}
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on October 04, 2014, 04:55:58 AM
Sorry for the delay posting these pics. Life stuff to deal with....

Anyway... not sure how much this helps, but here they are.
Nothing soldered yet. The socket pins for the IC (LM-386) are barely visible.
Sorry too for the dim pics, best I could do because the camera doesn't like the light reflections from the copper.
Had to use very subdued lighting or it would just wash-out the image.

Edit; note that there are no wires installed that would go to the off-board parts like the volume pot, battery power, jacks etc...
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on October 14, 2014, 04:44:23 PM
Hi Everyone! Just wanted to let you know that I finally ordered the two missing components...they should be here soon, and then I'll be ready to get back on track with this project.  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: galaxiex on October 15, 2014, 05:05:59 PM
Hi Everyone! Just wanted to let you know that I finally ordered the two missing components...they should be here soon, and then I'll be ready to get back on track with this project.  :)

Great! Glad you're still with us!  :)
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Lauren on November 13, 2014, 05:09:14 PM
Hello again!! My components arrived a while ago, and I am finally ready to refocus attention on this project. Need to know if this is the right component, though, as what I received looks significantly smaller than what galaxiex has in his pics.

This is the 2N5457 transistor. Will it work??

Hope you are all doing well! Also hope I get this finished this year. Lol.

Thanks, as always!!
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on November 13, 2014, 11:54:35 PM
Welcome back - we missed you.

Yeah, that FET should do fine.   :dbtu:

(http://thedatastream.4hv.org/images/prm_pre_amp/2N5457_pinout.png)

{and now I know how big an American one cent coin is  :lmao: }
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: spud on November 28, 2014, 02:51:07 PM
Not sure what happened to this project/thread and not to try to derail it or confuse it but I have the following observation:

I thought the orientation you chose for the project board and components rather odd.  Wouldn't it have been easier/more intuitive to orient the board turned 90 degrees so that the bus lines were going up/down and in-between the legs of the IC/chip?  I know it's only 8 pins but I find these Rat shack prototype boards more useful if they are rotated 90d like this: 
(http://)
(See IC_VERT_template_2.jpg I attached. BTW, how do you embed the jpg into the post?)

Here's another one based on the another RS product I like to call the "BUG" - this one is really small too. 

(See BUG_Template.jpg)

I'm not saying you should change it or anything at this time - it would probably be too confusing and derail things but I'm just pointing out what I'd call the "conventional" approach to using those kind of boards - at least from my perspective. 

Oh, and here are 2 projects I did using the first and another using the second type of board with a vertical orientation (see attachments).

Jim



Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on November 30, 2014, 04:50:35 AM
Thanks for those.   :dbtu:

Not dead, just puttering along a bit slowly.

There are lebenty-leben way to skin a cat.

So you mean something like this?

http://www.ssguitar.com/index.php?topic=3561.msg27150#msg27150 (http://www.ssguitar.com/index.php?topic=3561.msg27150#msg27150)
 :lmao:


While this is nominally Lauren's Ruby build thread it has been a very wide-ranging discussion around that central point, lots of related detail about components, and construction technique (which isn't on the circuit).  Ideally it would be great if this thread grew into a "go to" resource for any intending Ruby (or similar) builders.


If you feel like doing a layout for the Ruby like you suggest, rails up the middle, I don't think it would be confusing for you to post it here, and it would illustrate that there are many ways to get the same result.  The more the merrier.

Lauren has already expressed interest in building a fuzz box (or something) as her next project and your "Double_Dist" is worth a look, but we need to keep in mind that she is a total beginner and something a bit simpler might be a good idea first.


{I'm finding this thread interesting because I've been doing this stuff for over fifty years now and as I try and teach it is useful to be reminded how much I have internalised over the years, and that is anything but obvious to somebody doing their very first build.}
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: J M Fahey on December 01, 2014, 07:44:15 AM
STILL HERE ? ? ? :o

And still no working amp?  xP

What's wrong with the very first answer (August 25  ::)  ) 

(http://www.runoffgroove.com/littlegem-perf.png)

or the second one ... August 26 ?   :o

(http://www.runoffgroove.com/ruby-perf.png)

By September 6 it was already getting long on the tooth so I suggested as a simplifier/timesaver move to straight buy an inexpensive, readily available PCB and be done with it:

(http://www.generalguitargadgets.com/wp-content/uploads/1m_a386_pcb.jpg)

Almost 5000 views and 3 months later and still no :

(http://straightupcigars.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Mi-Barrio-Cigar-Review-2-550x355.jpg)

Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on December 01, 2014, 09:06:56 AM
Low Z-in

She bought an IC-specific board, not dabboard or stripboard

Chill bro, it's the journey (the FET had to come via Mongolia  :lmao: )
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: joecool85 on December 02, 2014, 01:28:25 PM
STILL HERE ? ? ? :o

And still no working amp?  xP

I get the impression that life has gotten in the way...of which I understand all to well (hence why you folks don't see me on here much).

That said, I applaud her for holding on to this project and continuing on.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: DrGonz78 on December 02, 2014, 03:34:20 PM
Still plenty of time to get er' done by the end of the year...  :dbtu:
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: spud on December 04, 2014, 09:58:36 AM
Roly,

I'll try to put that together but Dano did the "Noisy Cricket" ages ago and that was on the "bug" type board.  (It's generic to any IC type chip up to 16 pins.) But the Noisy Cricket is essentially the same as this with a few mods - not many. 

I'll try my hand at the Ruby on the IC board - should be pretty simple.  I have to find DIY Layout as I don't think it's installed anymore on this PC, I'll dig around for it.  I still use the old version (1.0) and haven't migrated to the new one as I have a bunch of stuff like templates and what not that I don't want to have to re-create.  I'm not sure if he ever got that feature working - it's been a while since I've worked with his SW.  Btw, it's a great program and free - I think he's still building/updating it, and supports it (as freeware/opensource).  Here's a link for folks that don't know about this great tool: 

http://diy-fever.com/software/diylc/ (http://diy-fever.com/software/diylc/)

Bancika, the guy that built it, is a fantastic DIY builder and has done all kinds of really cool projects to include pedals, amps and guitars.  I think he's a DIY genius - all of his efforts are very well thought out and well executed.  To be sure, they may not lend themselves to manufacturing or production but as one-offs they are fantastic.  His site has all his projects on it.

Jim
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: spud on December 04, 2014, 07:20:31 PM
Here's the Noisy Cricket (Mk II) on "bug board" by Beavis Audio (Dano) -

http://www.beavisaudio.com/Projects/NoisyCricket/MarkII/NoisyCricketMarkII_RadioShack_Rev2.pdf (http://www.beavisaudio.com/Projects/NoisyCricket/MarkII/NoisyCricketMarkII_RadioShack_Rev2.pdf)

His main site is here: 

He's another DIY Guru/Meister: 

http://www.beavisaudio.com/ (http://www.beavisaudio.com/)

Jim
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: spud on December 04, 2014, 07:28:56 PM
Found this poking around Dano/Beavis Audio's site:

http://www.beavisaudio.com/projects/ruby/ (http://www.beavisaudio.com/projects/ruby/)

Cool stuff!

Jim
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on December 05, 2014, 12:52:24 PM
Quote from: spud
I'll try my hand at the Ruby on the IC board - should be pretty simple.

It will be interesting to see how it compares with my "Quadrophina" layout;   8|
http://www.ssguitar.com/index.php?topic=3561.msg27150#msg27150 (http://www.ssguitar.com/index.php?topic=3561.msg27150#msg27150)


Quote from: spud
{DIY layour creator)'s a great program

I guess that depends on what you are used to.  From where I sit it's a handy Esperanto, useful for beginners, but slow, with some pretty serious limitations, and the odd bug.  I'm not trying to put it/him down, or say that it isn't useful, but to keep a sense of proportion; to a professional it is clearly a programme developed by an amateur, for amateurs.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: spud on December 05, 2014, 02:49:17 PM
Your absolutely right, I'm a hobbiest and don't have the resources or the experience to say otherwise.  I found it excellent within it's understood limitations - speed can be addressed with better hardware - it's runs pretty well on my Intel multicore laptop or my AMD multicore desktop both with 4 gb of memory, so I've not seen the performance issues.  Bugs, well even Microsoft has bugs...

My experience is limited to his first version, which I'm still using.  I'll have to try out his new version. 

Jim
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: J M Fahey on December 05, 2014, 06:32:57 PM
I like it very much, and recfommend it to lots of people.

Thanks Bancika!!!  :)

That said:

1)  it's clearly geared to amateurs, which is FINE   <3)

Problem with most Pro packages is the steep "learning curve" , way too much for somebody who wants to build a couple IC or half dozen transistor pedals.

While with DIY Creator it's a breeze   :dbtu:

No, I would not use it to draw, say, a 2 channel/reverb/overdrive/switching preamp.

Maybe you can but most of the drawing would always be outside the screen.

But for a pedal/psu/chipamp/active guitar/FM bug/simple PIC stuff, etc. (whatever you can fit in, say, a 2"x2"or 3"x3"board) is very good and straight to the point.

For larger designs, there's many to choose.

2) use the original, Windows only version. Period.

Something was lost in the "Universal" , Java based version.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: spud on December 06, 2014, 04:24:34 PM
Quote from: spud
I'll try my hand at the Ruby on the IC board - should be pretty simple.

It will be interesting to see how it compares with my "Quadrophina" layout;   8|
http://www.ssguitar.com/index.php?topic=3561.msg27150#msg27150 (http://www.ssguitar.com/index.php?topic=3561.msg27150#msg27150)


I don't think I'm going to do a quad config of it - although I guess a dual config wouldn't be bad.  I'll see if I can work that out.  Although I think someone may have tried it already - I'm thinking it was on ROG or DIY Stompboxes.  I'll snoop around for a schematic for a dual 386 chip build but don't hold your breath.  Oh, I'll probably cut the board down somewhat as more than one will fit on that giant sized IC PCB board.  In fact, I might redo the DD (Double Distortion) to get it smaller and allow cutting the board down.  As it is now it's kind of spread out for easier soldering - I have kind of fat fingers and working in tight spaces is a problem.  I guess that's the trade off - having components more spaced out is easier to solder/wire up but it takes up more space.  I suppose the "art" is in making it relatively easy to build but minimizing the space taken.

Jim
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on December 07, 2014, 01:00:19 AM
Just saw off the left hand end (with the supply bypassing).


Quote from: spud
I suppose the "art" is in making it relatively easy to build but minimizing the space taken.

If you're manufacturing thousands then every cent counts, every hole you can eliminate in the PCB is a fist full of dollars, but one off homebrew you can be one hell of a lot more relaxed about components; they are a tiny fraction of the notional cost in time putting it together, and apart from scrounge, most bits are so cheap they are effectively free.  I have built some micro-miniature stuff for animal tracking (pre SMD), but if you don't gotta, then don't make life any harder than it needs be.
Title: Re: DIY amp directions
Post by: Roly on December 12, 2014, 04:58:38 AM
And now, for something different - "Manhattan style" construction.  The lands are small bits of PCB glued down to the ground plane.  This happens to be a Noisy Cricket amp, similar to the Ruby, but the technique is suitable for construction of circuits up into the VHF range.

(http://i943.photobucket.com/albums/ad271/dgisaac1/Audio/2014-12-09085920_zps0d03ca20.jpg)

This is a very simple and direct method and even allows the use of any old bits of PCB that happen to be handy.